a petition written by around 1000 puritan clergymen asking for moderate reform from James they wanted:
- the removal of catholic ceremonies
- more focus on scriptures
- a stricter emphasis on the day of rest
- preachers who were educated
The milinary petition was not a treat to James as it acknowledged his power and only asked for moderate reform.
James' aims in foreign policy
- to mediate and maintain peace, to create alliances through marriage and to have good relations with the European superpowers, France and Spain
James' aims in religion
- to have an informal compromise with moderate reformers, so long as outward obedience was shown he would turn a blind eye to private worship.
Great farm of customs
- he gave the role of collecting custom duties to a few merchants who were then able to give the king loans knowing what money would be arriving soon. It created a more truthful and honest fiscal system.
Britan in 1603
- Scotland - was an independent state with its own parliament, religion (Presbyterian and Calvinist), legal system. They had little impact on an international scale.
- Ireland - shared a king with the English but had a Lord Lieutenant or Lord Deputy in charge of the Irish Parliament and implementing English law
- the native Irish were catholic but new english settlers were protestant
- Ireland was seen as a drain on English resources and was a generally volatile relationship
- England and Wales - has a personal monarchy, a king ruled that was advised by the court. Privy council was in charge of local government and general admin. Parliament represented the grievances of the people.
-The people of England were protestant - some through force, following the religious turmoil in england since Henry VIII the people of England were hoping for reformation and clear religious laws, Elizabeth had created the Anglican church which was a combination of catholic and protestation practices, so James inherited three countries which had mixed and different religious practices
Inherited foreign situation
- James went from being the king of an insignificant country to being the leader of European protestants
- James inherited a war with spain and an alliance with the dutch
James' view on parliament
- he believed that the powers of a monarch were to: distribute land, write and make laws, act on gods will and to create and destroy at will
- parliament obviously disagreed and thought that no one man should have that amount of power and believed that the king should listen to the views of his people.
The catholic bye plot was a plot made against James by extreme Catholics, although James began his reign with the attitude that he would not persecute anyone who showed outward obedience of the law after 1604 his trust diminished because
- liking catholics was unpopular with parliament, and as he wanted unification he aimed to please them.
-after the end of the war with Spain he no longer feared Spanish intervention in protection of Catholics
In response to the plot James reimposed the penal laws.
The Hampton court conference was in response to the military petition, several bishops and four or fiver moderate puritans were invited, the conference ended when the Presbyterian church was suggested as a model at which point James said "no bishop, no king" and left. However throughout the conference James: - questioned the bishops on how they practiced their faith - frequently consulted texts - instructed the bishops on aspects he did not like - sent out clear messages, he was willing to accept moderate reform but wanted no change to the hierarchy or any other radical reform
Buckinghamshire election - a privy councilor was defeated by sir Francis Goodwin but the election was declared invalid by James because Goodwin had failed to pay his debts . It was traditionally parliaments right to judge elections, it was not James' preoperative so they felt threatened.
Union of England and Scotland - the English detested the Scottish and regarded their appearance at court with great suspicion. James changed his name to the King Of Great Britain without parliaments permission
Purveyance's and Wardships - Parliament wanted to abolish them as they were losing money as they lived mostly in the south west.
Apology of satisfaction - Parliament were worried that the Kings rights were growing and growing but they were not increasing in power.
Second Session - 1605
- did not meet due to the gunpowder plot
Third session - 1606-1608
- Parliament gave James £400 000
- oath of alliance - a promise taken by all catholics promising to renounce the pope and not partake in any plots
- Bates case - a man bought currents into England and was taxed, he took James to court and lost.
- book of rates - a book of all of the taxes in England writted and published by James
- book of bounty - Sailsbury banned James from giving land - so he gave cash instead
- calvins case - a child was became a child of Great Britan, every child born after 1603 followed
Last session - 1610
- Great contract - Parliament offered to pay of James' debts if he gave up purveyance's and wardships, neither trusted the other.
The book of canons upset the puritans but only 90 left the church so it was handled well, they were laws that told christians how to dress and what ceremonies to attend.
Following the gunpowder plot James lived in fear of the public, often with only scottish people around him.
Bates bought currents into england and was taxed on them, he believed he should not have been so took James to court, he lost however it evoked the book of rates to be produced.
all catholics living in England were required to take the oath, which recognized James as their lawful monarch, denying the popes authority to dispose James and promising to resit any catholic conspiracy revolts.
In 1608 James apologized for the oath saying that he only wished to highlight those who may be at risk to him.
a book of taxes published by James that detailed all of the old and new taxes in England - it angered parliament and it was their prerogative to control taxes.
Book of Bounty 1608
- stopped James giving courtiers land and pensions, he gave cash instead
Survey of Crown lands 1608
- the government worked out how much land they had and for how much they could sell it for but by 1640 they ran out of land
Book of Rates - 1608
- a book detailing all the old and new taxes that were in England at the time - raised an extra £70000 PA but angered parliament
- parliament were supposed to give James money in order to pay of debts but he had to give up purvayances and wardships, neither trusted the other enough to agree.
A contract between James and Parliament in which James would give up Purveyances and wardships and parliament would give James £200 000 PA, neither trusted the other enough to agree
The feofees were a group of puritand who bought the tithe money from the gentry members who stole it and used it to get a preaching minister for each parish - James turned a blind eye to this (an informal compromise)
The only change to religion following the Hampton Court Conference - the bible was published in English - it greatly improved literacy levels but also meant that the people became more interested in politics
Abbot was a puritan, he relaxed the book of canons and lifted many of Bancroft's ideas
But he hated catholics so they were persecuted far more during this period.
there was no strong leadership, james was a bad leader and fractions competed for his support
Catholics were given a voice in court so were no longer excluded completely from political life.
Sale of honors
- titles were sold to people of lower status
- one of Englands largest exports was unifinished cloth, he convinced the king to allow the export of finished cloth instead but the resources were not available so it lead to mass unemployment and loss of money.
Walter Raleigh had been kept in the tower of London since 1603 because he was involved in a minor plot against James
- he had been given the death sentence but was released to search for gold in america in 1617
- he fought with the Spanish and was executed under James' orders to protect his relations with Spain.
The book of sport dictated what Christians could and couldn't do on a sunday as puritans believed that sunday should be a day of rest this angered them. Initially he forced all that it was read out every sunday in services however as it made the puritans angry he stopped.
The Protestation of 1621 was a declaration by the House of Commons of England reaffirming their right to freedom of speech in the face of King James' belief that they had no right to debate foreign policy.
Many Members of Parliament were unhappy with James' foreign policy. They opposed the Spanish Match, the plan to marry Charles, Prince of Wales to the Spanish Infanta, and wished for a war against Spain. The MPs believed that if they conceded that they had no right to debate matters which displeased the King, Parliament would be obsolete.
- the parliament was called because there was the possibility of war and James needed finance
- Monopolies were discussed - because the people were abusing them
- Giles Mompesson case - he was granted the monopoly for licencing inns but gave them to anyone who would pay, he was stripped of his knighthood and fined.
- Francis Bacon - had approved a number of patents and was responsible for people abusing them, he had taken bribes and parliament wanted to impeach him, James was prepared to sacrifice him to please the commons and prevent an attack on Buckingham.
Second Session November 1621
- Parliament were scared of adjournment because of the failure of the addled parliament
- Parliament discussed foreign policy, this was James' prerogative and he told them not to meddle in state matters.
- the protestation was written, it was a formal account of Parliaments rights and privileges - James ripped out the pages in the journal.
James issued instruction to clergymen forbidding them from preaching about predestination and repatriation - this was in support of Armenians, who promoted royal authority who believed in ceremony and hierarchy but did not believe in predestination.
Buckingam arranged the marriage with Louis XIII's chief minister cardinal richelieu. Buckingham wanted the french to join the anti habsburg alliance in exchange for marriage but Richelieu wrote the treaty saying that Henrietta Maria and her children would be allowed to practice their religion freely and that Catholics would be granted toleration - it mentioned no military alliance.
Cornfield was impeached because he favored pro Spanish policy so was removed to allow the passage of finance for the Spanish war.
Monopolies - the law was changed so that monopolies could only be issued to companies, this was bad for the king as he would have less people on his side as he could no longer bribe individuals
Cranfield - was found guilty of corruption and lost his office, he was fined £50 000 and imprisoned, James had no control showing parliament could remove any council member that they wished.
The first forced loan was imposed in 1625 and another in 1626 and 1627.
- as Charles was getting no money from parliament he had to raise funds so issued the forced loans, which were an intrest free loan that was unlikely to ever be repaid back and could not be refused, those who did were imprisoned, sometimes without trial.
The loans angered parliament and the people, he was denying the rule of law and reducing parliaments control
They raised £240 000
all gifts of royal or church land made to the Scottish nobility were revoked.
- Charles had a severe need for income unpon his accession to the throne because of the hast dissolution of parliament to save money, the wars with spain and france needed to be funded.
The French abandoned the English troops, so the English were poorly equipped and were stranded in the dutch countryside which was largely bare of any necessities, most soldiers died of disease or starvation.
Cost commons £60 000
England and the United Provinces signed the treaty of Southampton which bound them together in an alliance.
Used Henrietta Maria's dowry of £120 000 and £70 000 borrowed from international financiers.
The troops landed in a wine farm got drunk and lost the battle.
HOUSE - at a conference held at Buckingham's house he associated himself with the Armenians
CROWN - Charles called the parliament to secure a loan against the crown jewels
SHERIFF - Charles prevented those he did not like attending parliament by making them sheriffs of their county, so they could not leave.
GOAT - parliament made Buckingham a scapegoat for the failure of foreign affairs and Charles' shortfallings
The parliament was dissolved because he could not rely on them dropping the case against Buckingham, he sacrificed subsidies in order to save him.
Parliament refused to offer Charles any money while Buckingham has influence, Charles would not remove Buckingham so Charles had to abandon the Danish army
The British fleet set sail to Spain to early because so much had been spent on the resources and there were concerns that it would rot, the fleet was struck by violent storms so returned home without reaching the battle.
After Richelieu built a substantial fleet and seized the English wine fleet to acquire trading posts in the New world, it was apparent that there was no chance of the French joining the anti Hapsburg alliance so they took a fleet of 100 shift to support the protestants in La Rochelle.
Five gentlemen challenged Charles' right to imprison them for not paying the forced loan, Charles had to work hard for the judges to find in his favor.
The petiton asked that the king declared the rights of parliament that already existed, there would be no forced loans, no imprisonment without trial, no billeting or use or martial law against civilians.
The petition maintained outward respect for the king while avoiding any implication that the rights were dependent on his goodwill.
Charles did not agree to this view of the role of Parliament, he viewed all debates on it with deep disfavor, he wanted parliament to trust him.
Charles accepted the petition with reluctance as he was waiting for five subsidies that he needed.
Buckingham was assassinated and there were scenes of the public rejoicing, Charles blames parliament for his death as John Feloton claimed to have been inspired by MPs dislike for him.
The aims of the personal rule
- provide a well ordered and efficient government (thorough)
- raise sufficient money in order to avoid recalling parliament
- put an end to religious indiscipline
His rule was not tyrannical because he was careful to remain within the law and had little interest in politics and trusted those around him to make decisions.
Were passed after the speaker in parliament was held down so they could be passed, they were
- stop arminianism
- to stop tonnage and poundage
- to stop the imprisonment of anyone who did not pay tonnage and poundage
- English merchants traded in arms, food, military and naval supplies with europe and obtained a near monopoly with iberian trade
Curbing Royal Expenditure
- the royal household accounted for £260 000 a year and it was difficult to change the system because the Kings associates felt it was their right to have the privileges.
Distrait of Knighthood
- every man who earned over £40 a year was supposed to present himself to be knighted, all those who hadn't were fined
- it raised around £170 000
- the boundries of forests were declared to be as they were in the time of Henry VIII, anyone who had land or buildings within this area was fined
- The Earl of Sailsbury was fined £20 000
- a collection of money to defend the seas from pirates, it was supposed to be for only coastal counties and in emergencies but was made permanent and for all counties.
- it raised £190 000 a year and only 2.5% of people didn't pay until 1638
The town of Tintinhull raides the most disputed because it was the home of the parliamentary critic Sir Robert Phelips one of the most prominent parliamentary critics.
Sir David Foulis had attempted to gain support in Yorkshire against the distraint of knighthood however he was met with little sympathy. Nobody doubted the motives of collecting it but argued that the conduction of collection was unjust.
John Hampden was a member of the Buckinghamshire gentry and was bought to trial for refusing to pay ship money, it was a moral victory for him as the judges found that Charles could not force people to collect it.
In 1637 Charles introduced the English prayer book to Scotland which caused riots, the Scottish Clergy and nobility met in 1638 to draw up a contract to defend the kirk.
The English were short of money and resources, many of the nobility had no wish to fight and JPs were half hearted in their preparations and the militia did not want to leave their hometowns.
The Scots were allowed to decide their own religious settlement
Removing evil advisers
- Firch and Windebenk - catholic converts who were part of Henrietta Marias fraction fled abroad
- Laud - imprisoned in the tower of London until his execution in 1645
- Wentworth - Pym resorted to the bill of attainer, which stated that a person accused of treason did not have to have any evidence or trial it simply had to be passed through the commons, lords and crown - all of whom were tricked or forced into signing it by Pym
-tonnage and poundage was made illegal
- ship money, distraint of knighthoods, forest fines and the star Chamber, high comission and councils of the north and west were abolished
- privy council lost its powers
Charles had to pay £850 a day to keep the Scottish army in the north
Snesing that Charles was losing control of England the Scottish decided to invade England, they reached Newcastle and Charles' troops were overwhelmed, he has no choice but to sign the treaty of Ripton.
Laud issued a new set of religious laws, one section - the et cetera oath was a pledge to uphold episcopacy and the anglican hierarchy
Stated that parliament had to meet every three years at least
The Grand Remonstrance was an open attack on Charles' preoperative, it was just an account of his past mistakes.
It asked for
- parliament to choose the kings ministers
- parliament should be able to remove the kings ministers
- reform of the church of England
- the commons to investigate catholic conspiracy
Many MPs were disturbed by Pyms use of the mob to get a favorable vote. They were also disgusted that it was printed for the public as the public were not involved in politics.
A kings house and a group following Pym developed in parliament.
called for the abolition of bishops, many MPs had no love for Laudian bishops and wanted the moderate bishops of Elizabethan times.
The Duke was finally summoned to Court in April 1521 and arrested and placed in the Tower. He was tried before a panel of 17 peers, being accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. He was executed on Tower Hill on 17 May. Buckingham was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament.
Charles entered the house of commons with 300 troops to arrest 5 MPs who were plotting against the Queen, the members were not arrested and Charles destroyed his relationship with parliament.
the demands left little room for compromise and had he complied would have made him a constitutional monarch. Parliament wanted control of his Children and the church, so promised a civil war.