AS level early modern history


Milenary petition


a petition written by around 1000 puritan clergymen asking for moderate reform from James they wanted:
- the removal of catholic ceremonies
- more focus on scriptures
- a stricter emphasis on the day of rest
- preachers who were educated

The milinary petition was not a treat to James as it acknowledged his power and only asked for moderate reform.

James I rule

1603 - 1625

James' aims in foreign policy
- to mediate and maintain peace, to create alliances through marriage and to have good relations with the European superpowers, France and Spain

James' aims in religion
- to have an informal compromise with moderate reformers, so long as outward obedience was shown he would turn a blind eye to private worship.

Thomas Sackvill is treasurer

1603 - 1608

Great farm of customs
- he gave the role of collecting custom duties to a few merchants who were then able to give the king loans knowing what money would be arriving soon. It created a more truthful and honest fiscal system.

Death of Elizabeth I and accession of James

March 24 1603

Britan in 1603
- Scotland - was an independent state with its own parliament, religion (Presbyterian and Calvinist), legal system. They had little impact on an international scale.
- Ireland - shared a king with the English but had a Lord Lieutenant or Lord Deputy in charge of the Irish Parliament and implementing English law
- the native Irish were catholic but new english settlers were protestant
- Ireland was seen as a drain on English resources and was a generally volatile relationship
- England and Wales - has a personal monarchy, a king ruled that was advised by the court. Privy council was in charge of local government and general admin. Parliament represented the grievances of the people.
-The people of England were protestant - some through force, following the religious turmoil in england since Henry VIII the people of England were hoping for reformation and clear religious laws, Elizabeth had created the Anglican church which was a combination of catholic and protestation practices, so James inherited three countries which had mixed and different religious practices

Inherited foreign situation
- James went from being the king of an insignificant country to being the leader of European protestants
- James inherited a war with spain and an alliance with the dutch

James' view on parliament
- he believed that the powers of a monarch were to: distribute land, write and make laws, act on gods will and to create and destroy at will
- parliament obviously disagreed and thought that no one man should have that amount of power and believed that the king should listen to the views of his people.

Catholic bye plot

June 24 1603

The catholic bye plot was a plot made against James by extreme Catholics, although James began his reign with the attitude that he would not persecute anyone who showed outward obedience of the law after 1604 his trust diminished because
- liking catholics was unpopular with parliament, and as he wanted unification he aimed to please them.
-after the end of the war with Spain he no longer feared Spanish intervention in protection of Catholics
In response to the plot James reimposed the penal laws.

Hampton Court Conference


The Hampton court conference was in response to the military petition, several bishops and four or fiver moderate puritans were invited, the conference ended when the Presbyterian church was suggested as a model at which point James said "no bishop, no king" and left. However throughout the conference James: - questioned the bishops on how they practiced their faith - frequently consulted texts - instructed the bishops on aspects he did not like - sent out clear messages, he was willing to accept moderate reform but wanted no change to the hierarchy or any other radical reform

James' first Parliament

1604 - 1610

First session
Buckinghamshire election - a privy councilor was defeated by sir Francis Goodwin but the election was declared invalid by James because Goodwin had failed to pay his debts . It was traditionally parliaments right to judge elections, it was not James' preoperative so they felt threatened.

Union of England and Scotland - the English detested the Scottish and regarded their appearance at court with great suspicion. James changed his name to the King Of Great Britain without parliaments permission
Purveyance's and Wardships - Parliament wanted to abolish them as they were losing money as they lived mostly in the south west.
Apology of satisfaction - Parliament were worried that the Kings rights were growing and growing but they were not increasing in power.

Second Session - 1605
- did not meet due to the gunpowder plot

Third session - 1606-1608
- Parliament gave James £400 000
- oath of alliance - a promise taken by all catholics promising to renounce the pope and not partake in any plots
- Bates case - a man bought currents into England and was taxed, he took James to court and lost.
- book of rates - a book of all of the taxes in England writted and published by James
- book of bounty - Sailsbury banned James from giving land - so he gave cash instead
- calvins case - a child was became a child of Great Britan, every child born after 1603 followed

Last session - 1610
- Great contract - Parliament offered to pay of James' debts if he gave up purveyance's and wardships, neither trusted the other.

Bancroft's canons published


The book of canons upset the puritans but only 90 left the church so it was handled well, they were laws that told christians how to dress and what ceremonies to attend.

Richarf Bancroft appointed as Archbishop of Centerbury


Treaty of London

  • James inherited a war with spain, as soon as he came to the throne he made up the treaty of london.
  • the treaty ended the war and gave english merchants the right to trade with spanish merchants and in spain without fear for their religion

Robert Cecil created Earl of Sailsbury


Gunpowder Plot

Nov 5 1605

Following the gunpowder plot James lived in fear of the public, often with only scottish people around him.

Bates Case


Bates bought currents into england and was taxed on them, he believed he should not have been so took James to court, he lost however it evoked the book of rates to be produced.

Oath of Allegiance


all catholics living in England were required to take the oath, which recognized James as their lawful monarch, denying the popes authority to dispose James and promising to resit any catholic conspiracy revolts.
In 1608 James apologized for the oath saying that he only wished to highlight those who may be at risk to him.

Book of Rates issued


a book of taxes published by James that detailed all of the old and new taxes in England - it angered parliament and it was their prerogative to control taxes.

Earl of Sailsbury (Robert Cecil) is treasurer

1608 - 1612

Book of Bounty 1608
- stopped James giving courtiers land and pensions, he gave cash instead
Survey of Crown lands 1608
- the government worked out how much land they had and for how much they could sell it for but by 1640 they ran out of land
Book of Rates - 1608
- a book detailing all the old and new taxes that were in England at the time - raised an extra £70000 PA but angered parliament
Great Contract
- parliament were supposed to give James money in order to pay of debts but he had to give up purvayances and wardships, neither trusted the other enough to agree.

Great Contract


A contract between James and Parliament in which James would give up Purveyances and wardships and parliament would give James £200 000 PA, neither trusted the other enough to agree

Feofees set up


The feofees were a group of puritand who bought the tithe money from the gentry members who stole it and used it to get a preaching minister for each parish - James turned a blind eye to this (an informal compromise)

The Act for better discovering recusants

  • imposed stricter fines of recusants
  • banned catholics from living or working in london

Richard Bancroft dies


Authorized bible published


The only change to religion following the Hampton Court Conference - the bible was published in English - it greatly improved literacy levels but also meant that the people became more interested in politics

George Abbot appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury


Abbot was a puritan, he relaxed the book of canons and lifted many of Bancroft's ideas
But he hated catholics so they were persecuted far more during this period.

Years of Drift

1612 - 1618

there was no strong leadership, james was a bad leader and fractions competed for his support

Death of Prince Henry


A pro Spanish fraction developed at court


Catholics were given a voice in court so were no longer excluded completely from political life.

Elizabeth marries Frederick of the palatinate


Addled Parliament

  • Parliament and James argued over impositions
  • Cockayne project - exporting finished cloth was tried as a financial scheme but failed
  • Spanish marriage plan for Charles was suggested
  • the parliament was called to try and obtain a grant in light of more anti spanish policy
  • parliament was dissolved because an MP wanted all spanish members to leave, James became angry so dissolved the parliament

Thomas Howard was treasurer

1614 - 1618

Sale of honors
- titles were sold to people of lower status
Cockayne project
- one of Englands largest exports was unifinished cloth, he convinced the king to allow the export of finished cloth instead but the resources were not available so it lead to mass unemployment and loss of money.

Negotiations for a marriage between Charles and Spanish Infanta begin


Cockayne Project


George Villers appointed as a gentleman of the bedchamber


George Villers made Duke Of Buckingham


Sir Walter Raleigh executed


Walter Raleigh had been kept in the tower of London since 1603 because he was involved in a minor plot against James
- he had been given the death sentence but was released to search for gold in america in 1617
- he fought with the Spanish and was executed under James' orders to protect his relations with Spain.

Thomas Cranfield was treasurer

1618 - 1625
  • he made savings of £7000 in the wardrobe alone
  • he attacked waste, accurately budgeted and eliminated corrupt or unnecessary officials
  • people often found ways around the restrictions
  • he failed to reduce pensions
  • he refused to sell crown lands
  • although he made significant savings he only tightened the existing system and made no permanent changes so left no impression on the fiscal system.

Book of Sport issued


The book of sport dictated what Christians could and couldn't do on a sunday as puritans believed that sunday should be a day of rest this angered them. Initially he forced all that it was read out every sunday in services however as it made the puritans angry he stopped.

30 years war begins


Bohemian crown accepted by Frederick of the Palatinate


100 puritans left for America


Hasburg troops invade the palatnate




The Protestation of 1621 was a declaration by the House of Commons of England reaffirming their right to freedom of speech in the face of King James' belief that they had no right to debate foreign policy.

Many Members of Parliament were unhappy with James' foreign policy. They opposed the Spanish Match, the plan to marry Charles, Prince of Wales to the Spanish Infanta, and wished for a war against Spain.[1] The MPs believed that if they conceded that they had no right to debate matters which displeased the King, Parliament would be obsolete.

Third Parliament


First session
- the parliament was called because there was the possibility of war and James needed finance
- Monopolies were discussed - because the people were abusing them
- Giles Mompesson case - he was granted the monopoly for licencing inns but gave them to anyone who would pay, he was stripped of his knighthood and fined.
- Francis Bacon - had approved a number of patents and was responsible for people abusing them, he had taken bribes and parliament wanted to impeach him, James was prepared to sacrifice him to please the commons and prevent an attack on Buckingham.

Second Session November 1621
- Parliament were scared of adjournment because of the failure of the addled parliament
- Parliament discussed foreign policy, this was James' prerogative and he told them not to meddle in state matters.
- the protestation was written, it was a formal account of Parliaments rights and privileges - James ripped out the pages in the journal.

Direction to preachers


James issued instruction to clergymen forbidding them from preaching about predestination and repatriation - this was in support of Armenians, who promoted royal authority who believed in ceremony and hierarchy but did not believe in predestination.

Buckingham and Charles travel to Madrid

  • Buckingham and Charles traveled to Madrid to demonstrate Charles' commitment to the infanta
  • they were treated with the up most courtesy as the Spanish thought that Charles wished to convert to Catholicism
  • they approved the marriage so long as the following conditions were met - Catholics were fully tolerated in England including public worship - the palatinate had to be fully restored
  • they returned intent on war, parliament wanted a sea war as it would be self financing but Buckingham wanted a grand anti - habsburg alliance and a continental war.

Marriage of Charles to Henrietta Maria


Buckingam arranged the marriage with Louis XIII's chief minister cardinal richelieu. Buckingham wanted the french to join the anti habsburg alliance in exchange for marriage but Richelieu wrote the treaty saying that Henrietta Maria and her children would be allowed to practice their religion freely and that Catholics would be granted toleration - it mentioned no military alliance.

Cranfield Impeached


Cornfield was impeached because he favored pro Spanish policy so was removed to allow the passage of finance for the Spanish war.

Fourth Parliament


Monopolies - the law was changed so that monopolies could only be issued to companies, this was bad for the king as he would have less people on his side as he could no longer bribe individuals
Cranfield - was found guilty of corruption and lost his office, he was fined £50 000 and imprisoned, James had no control showing parliament could remove any council member that they wished.

Charles' first parliament

  • Charles opened the session with an appeal for money and a promise to consider grievances later in the year.
  • Parliament wanted to talk about - the French Marriage, Mansfield expedition, the lack on an enemy, the plague, tonnage and poundage
  • MPs wanted a quick adjournment because of the plague in London
  • MPs were reluctant to grant tonnage and poundage because the money had previously been misused and were hoping of reform (they wanted charles to have control of the impositions that existed but not have the ability to create new ones
  • Charles was offended and continued to collect tonnage and poundage regardless
  • he ordered parliament to meet again three weeks later in oxford, but MPs had made it very clear that they were unwilling to grant any more money and so turned on Buckingham

Forced Loan


The first forced loan was imposed in 1625 and another in 1626 and 1627.
- as Charles was getting no money from parliament he had to raise funds so issued the forced loans, which were an intrest free loan that was unlikely to ever be repaid back and could not be refused, those who did were imprisoned, sometimes without trial.
The loans angered parliament and the people, he was denying the rule of law and reducing parliaments control
They raised £240 000

Act of Recovation


all gifts of royal or church land made to the Scottish nobility were revoked.

England and Spain go to war

  • Charles and Buckingham had returned from Madrid set on war, only James and a few council members had stood in his way
  • in return for £300 000 the crown agreed that the money would only be spent on defense of the realm, aid of the united provenances and the navy.

Charles Rule

1625 - 1629

- Charles had a severe need for income unpon his accession to the throne because of the hast dissolution of parliament to save money, the wars with spain and france needed to be funded.

Death of James and accession of Charles



Jan 1625

The French abandoned the English troops, so the English were poorly equipped and were stranded in the dutch countryside which was largely bare of any necessities, most soldiers died of disease or starvation.
Cost commons £60 000

Treaty of Southampton

Sept 1625

England and the United Provinces signed the treaty of Southampton which bound them together in an alliance.


Oct 1625

Used Henrietta Maria's dowry of £120 000 and £70 000 borrowed from international financiers.
The troops landed in a wine farm got drunk and lost the battle.

Charles' second parliament


HOUSE - at a conference held at Buckingham's house he associated himself with the Armenians
CROWN - Charles called the parliament to secure a loan against the crown jewels
SHERIFF - Charles prevented those he did not like attending parliament by making them sheriffs of their county, so they could not leave.
GOAT - parliament made Buckingham a scapegoat for the failure of foreign affairs and Charles' shortfallings

The parliament was dissolved because he could not rely on them dropping the case against Buckingham, he sacrificed subsidies in order to save him.

British troops abandoned the Danish

April 1626

Parliament refused to offer Charles any money while Buckingham has influence, Charles would not remove Buckingham so Charles had to abandon the Danish army

Bay of Biscay

Oct 1626

The British fleet set sail to Spain to early because so much had been spent on the resources and there were concerns that it would rot, the fleet was struck by violent storms so returned home without reaching the battle.

La Rochelle


After Richelieu built a substantial fleet and seized the English wine fleet to acquire trading posts in the New world, it was apparent that there was no chance of the French joining the anti Hapsburg alliance so they took a fleet of 100 shift to support the protestants in La Rochelle.

  • the ladders they had taken were far too short to scale the walls so it was a military disaster

Five knights case


Five gentlemen challenged Charles' right to imprison them for not paying the forced loan, Charles had to work hard for the judges to find in his favor.

Petition of right


The petiton asked that the king declared the rights of parliament that already existed, there would be no forced loans, no imprisonment without trial, no billeting or use or martial law against civilians.
The petition maintained outward respect for the king while avoiding any implication that the rights were dependent on his goodwill.
Charles did not agree to this view of the role of Parliament, he viewed all debates on it with deep disfavor, he wanted parliament to trust him.
Charles accepted the petition with reluctance as he was waiting for five subsidies that he needed.

Charles' third parliament

  • recent religious developments (Laud, Arminian influence) meant that the MPs wanted to obtain religious concessions but they could not weaken Charles' support for the arminians.
  • Many MPs had their goods seized because they refused to pay tonnage and poundage.
  • When the speaker announced Charles was going to adjourn the parliament the speaker was forcibly held down so that the three resolutions could be passed.

Assassination of Buckingham


Buckingham was assassinated and there were scenes of the public rejoicing, Charles blames parliament for his death as John Feloton claimed to have been inspired by MPs dislike for him.

Wentworth becomes president of the council of the north


Charles' personal rule

1629 - 1640

The aims of the personal rule
- provide a well ordered and efficient government (thorough)
- raise sufficient money in order to avoid recalling parliament
- put an end to religious indiscipline

His rule was not tyrannical because he was careful to remain within the law and had little interest in politics and trusted those around him to make decisions.

The three resolutions


Were passed after the speaker in parliament was held down so they could be passed, they were
- stop arminianism
- to stop tonnage and poundage
- to stop the imprisonment of anyone who did not pay tonnage and poundage

Finance in the 1630's

1630 - 1639

Custom Revenues
- English merchants traded in arms, food, military and naval supplies with europe and obtained a near monopoly with iberian trade

Curbing Royal Expenditure
- the royal household accounted for £260 000 a year and it was difficult to change the system because the Kings associates felt it was their right to have the privileges.

Distrait of Knighthood

- every man who earned over £40 a year was supposed to present himself to be knighted, all those who hadn't were fined
- it raised around £170 000

Forest Fines
- the boundries of forests were declared to be as they were in the time of Henry VIII, anyone who had land or buildings within this area was fined
- The Earl of Sailsbury was fined £20 000

Ship Money
- a collection of money to defend the seas from pirates, it was supposed to be for only coastal counties and in emergencies but was made permanent and for all counties.

- it raised £190 000 a year and only 2.5% of people didn't pay until 1638

The town of Tintinhull raides the most disputed because it was the home of the parliamentary critic Sir Robert Phelips one of the most prominent parliamentary critics.

Privy council made more effective

  • they met twice weekly
  • they handled the routine business of government
  • committees were established to deal with Scotland, Ireland and Trade
  • but Charles rarely attended meetings and the majority of decisions were made by the king after consultation with his favorites.
  • There were 50 Justices of the Peace in each county who were chosen by the king and met four times a year and acted as a court of law and administrative forum.
  • communication was erratic and JPs were largely free to rule as they pleased

Wentworth appointed as Lord Deputy in Ireland

  • Wentworth was one of the most energetic and efficient members of the privy council, he was disliked by Charles, had an alliance with Laud.
  • Charles sent him to Ireland so that he could secure his services without having to personally deal with him.
  • Wentworth exerted great pressure over who was in parliamentory votes and refused to deal with anything until all financial problems had been dealt with.
  • he exploited the divisions in society to gain money
  • he alienated all and rebellion swept the country
  • he eneded the deficit and began to contribute to the english treasurey
  • he ended the clains to royal titles due to huge tracts of land
  • he imposed fines on those who opposed changes
  • customs was made more efficient and reformed the church administration.
  • he returned to ireland in 1639 when rebellion was rife and they were bringing their worries to the privy council.

Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

  • was the son of a cloth merchant so not of the class to rule an important area such as religion
  • services became more uniform
  • bowing by the congregation to the name of Jesus was introduced
  • the alter was moved to the sacred east of the church
  • the book of sports was reissued
  • all bishops had to live in their diocese and make regular parish visits

Declaration of Sports issued


Distraint of Knighthood resistance


Sir David Foulis had attempted to gain support in Yorkshire against the distraint of knighthood however he was met with little sympathy. Nobody doubted the motives of collecting it but argued that the conduction of collection was unjust.

Introduction of Ship money to all counties


Trial of John Hampden


John Hampden was a member of the Buckinghamshire gentry and was bought to trial for refusing to pay ship money, it was a moral victory for him as the judges found that Charles could not force people to collect it.

Pryne, Bastwick and Burton case

  • all published attacks on the church and were tried in the star chamber
  • they were found guilty and had their ears cut off, had to pay a large fine, and were imprisoned for life.

First Bishops war


In 1637 Charles introduced the English prayer book to Scotland which caused riots, the Scottish Clergy and nobility met in 1638 to draw up a contract to defend the kirk.
The English were short of money and resources, many of the nobility had no wish to fight and JPs were half hearted in their preparations and the militia did not want to leave their hometowns.

Treaty of Berwick


The Scots were allowed to decide their own religious settlement

Long parliament

  • MPs met with a clear idea of what they wanted ti discuss and do: - stop the slide of church into Catholicism - stop unpopular financial methods - punish the kings evil advisers - abolish the star chamber and wardships.

Removing evil advisers
- Firch and Windebenk - catholic converts who were part of Henrietta Marias fraction fled abroad
- Laud - imprisoned in the tower of London until his execution in 1645
- Wentworth - Pym resorted to the bill of attainer, which stated that a person accused of treason did not have to have any evidence or trial it simply had to be passed through the commons, lords and crown - all of whom were tricked or forced into signing it by Pym

-tonnage and poundage was made illegal
- ship money, distraint of knighthoods, forest fines and the star Chamber, high comission and councils of the north and west were abolished
- privy council lost its powers

Treaty of Ripon


Charles had to pay £850 a day to keep the Scottish army in the north

Second bishops war


Snesing that Charles was losing control of England the Scottish decided to invade England, they reached Newcastle and Charles' troops were overwhelmed, he has no choice but to sign the treaty of Ripton.

New Canons


Laud issued a new set of religious laws, one section - the et cetera oath was a pledge to uphold episcopacy and the anglican hierarchy

The short parliament

  • Charles demanded money to fight the Scots from parliament
  • Pym argued that the nations grievances should take priority over financial needs
  • Charles attempted a compromise but learned that the MPs intended to debate the Scottish policy, he lost his temper and dissolved the parliament.

Charles I

1640 - 1642

Triennial act


Stated that parliament had to meet every three years at least

The grand remonstrance


The Grand Remonstrance was an open attack on Charles' preoperative, it was just an account of his past mistakes.
It asked for
- parliament to choose the kings ministers
- parliament should be able to remove the kings ministers
- reform of the church of England
- the commons to investigate catholic conspiracy

Many MPs were disturbed by Pyms use of the mob to get a favorable vote. They were also disgusted that it was printed for the public as the public were not involved in politics.

A kings house and a group following Pym developed in parliament.

Outbreak of rebellion in Ireland

  • after Stafford died they felt that they no longer had an oppressor
  • they claimed to be acting in Charles' name but felt that Charles could not be trusted with an army
  • the revolt strengthened belief in a catholic conspiracy

Charles visits Scotland


Root and Branch Petition


called for the abolition of bishops, many MPs had no love for Laudian bishops and wanted the moderate bishops of Elizabethan times.

Abolishment of unpopular personal rule methods


Trial and execution of Stafford


The Duke was finally summoned to Court in April 1521 and arrested and placed in the Tower. He was tried before a panel of 17 peers, being accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. He was executed on Tower Hill on 17 May. Buckingham was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament.

Five members coup


Charles entered the house of commons with 300 troops to arrest 5 MPs who were plotting against the Queen, the members were not arrested and Charles destroyed his relationship with parliament.

Outbreak of Civil war


Nineteen propositions


the demands left little room for compromise and had he complied would have made him a constitutional monarch. Parliament wanted control of his Children and the church, so promised a civil war.