The terms of the treaty were
- the demand for reparations to be increased to include family allowances and pensions for the wounded soldiers
- Land that contained valuable natural resources was taken from Germany and redistributed
- Germany would lose all colonies and foreign investments
- they would lose most of their merchant navy and almost all of its army who were forbidden from having tanks, aircraft, submarines or gas.
- the treaty declared that Germany was responsible for starting the war
Wolfgang Kapp, a founding member of the Fartherland party marched into Luttwitzand called for eberts resignation and for the reprieve of the freikorps, when the government refused they marched into Berlin and proclaimed kapp as the chancellor, they fled and traveled around the country but had little success except in Bavaria where they replaces the Bavarian government with a right wing regime/ He was defeated and on March 18th fled to Sweden to avoid arrest.
A workers uprising in in the Ruhr, was the product of a communist red army of around 80 000 men, bu 20th March they controlled most of the Ruhr.
The election of the 6th June was a disaster for the Weimar, the SPD and the DDP lost many seats while the USPD, DVP and DNCP clocked up gains. A new minority coalition formed under the center party.
By the end of April the German debt was fixed at 132 billion, which would induce a huge bought of economic depression and unemployment
Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich on what they thought would be a triumphal march to take power, however, Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements. There was a short scuffle in which the police killed 16 Nazis.
Hitler fled, but was arrested two days later.
After president Ebert died in February 1925 the elections were held, in the first ballot the winner needed an absolute majority but in the second a majority was enough, so Hindenberg won in the second election.
Hitler was released from prison and needed to rebuild his party and reestablish his power, as the Nazi party had been outlawed until a ban was lifted in Bavaria in January 1925 he could not do much. Hitler did no routine politics or administration and men such as Rudolph Hess took care of things such as this.
The ban on the Nazi party was lifted in Bavaria and so Hitler began to rebuild the party, he never revised the party's 1920 programme but modified it to attract new supporters, his book mein kampf became the guide to Nazi ideology
The SS became an organisation responsible only to Hitler who were responsible for the party's intelligence and espionage, he hoped it would become the new racial elite.
The election on the 14th September 1930 was a huge success for the Nazi party following the propaganda campaign of Joseph Goebbels the Nazi party became the second largest in the Reichstag
Hindemberg dismissed Bruning in may 1932 because
- his economic policies were unpopular and caused morale and support to be low.
- the nationalists who were influential with Hindenburg and the Nazis were bitterly opposed to him
- the army disliked him and his policies
- Bruning was planning to redistribute large amounts of land to the unemployed which angered the rich
The nazis became the largest party in the reichstag
The staff of all radio and newspaper companies were purged of left wingers of Jews. The reich radio company controlled all radio broadcasts and ensured that they were politically appropriate but also that the shows were not only political broadcasts. The same was done across all media.
In early 1933 concentration camps and torture chambers were set up in Germany they were used by the SA by 1939 there were 21 000 prisoners in concentration camps who ranged from political enemies to habitual criminals and homosexuals. By the end of the war there were over 720 000 inmates. The camps were regularly used as sources of labor for the war effort.
Hitler promised to solve the unemployment problem within four years of taking power. Many unemployed people were moved from the labor marked and were employed temporarily by organisations such as the voluntary labour service which in 1935 employed over half a million young men. In May 1835 compulsorary military service was introduced for all 18 year old males, the armed forces took a large proportion of the unemployed. The law for reduction of unemployment meant that the government could squeeze women out of work by offering young couples an interest free loan worth up to 1000 reichsmarks for as long as the wife remained at home. The motor industry was helped by tax concessions. The length of the working week was shortened so more people were needed to do the work.
After General von Blomberg banned officers from joining the Nazi party Hitler met with the army and won them over by promising to respect the army's traditions and political neutrality. He did however set up the reich defense council on which blomberg had a seat so he maintained control.
The nazis remained the largest party in the reichstag and the enabling act was passed 444 votes to 94, the SS surrounded the Kroll Opera house and the SA lined the corridors
Hitler became Chancellor
Under this law the Lander diets were reconstituted to reflect the share of different parties in the reichstag.
By the Spring of 1933 Joseph Goebbels controlled broadcasting and ensured all converge was favorable to the government and Hitler.
The gestapo was set up by Doring to maintain discipline in the factories and keep political and ideological opponents of the regime under surveillance. It quickly attained a mythical status as an all seeing all knowing arm of state security and law enforcement but in reality it was a very small organisation and never had over 20 000 members in the whole of Germany, they depended on members of the public to tell on their neighbors.
enabled anyone deemed politically unreliable to be removed from public office
under this law the reich governors who were the local Nazi leader were appointed with powers to make their own laws.
After the failure of a public holiday in honor of National labor and the unions on the 2nd May the SA and SS occupied trade union offices throughout Germany and many trade union officials were beaten up and put into concentration camps, after this point all unions were replaced by the German labor front which all workers and employers had to enroll.
Industrialists were recommended to pay a donation to Hitler to express gratitude for the elimination of trade unions and in anticipation of the economic upturn.
Following the death of their leader Ernst Oberforen the DNDP agreed to dissolve.
This lead to an outbreak of violence against the SPD and Communists, around 3000 officers were put in prisons or concentration camps and 91 were killed.
The SA became an embarrading reminder of the years that had passed, they became a threat to the actual army and lead to rivalry.
The curriculum in all German schools was changed so that it was Nazi appropriate. All subjects found links to Nazi ideology and practice and all young people were taught what they would have needed as Nazi adults.
The concordat was an agreement between the Nazis and the catholic church that agreed
- the catholic church was guaranteed religions freedom, the right to administer itself and appoint its clergy and to run faith schools and youth groups
the lander diets were dissolved and the state governments were integrated with the state government.
Hitler was able to create a one party centralized reich, through various means and with varying degrees of success the Nazis tried to control every aspect of the reich.
Hitler summoned a meeting of SA leaders for the following day at Wiesee in Bacaria, both the army and the SS were put on alert. The SA leaders were arrested and locked in a room before being taken to munich before being shot.
The organisation responsible for all teachers in Germany, the league was responsible for the political indoctrination of teachers
The Nazis did not want women to be educated or to work, they wanted them to marry and have children, raising the next generation of Nazis. To do this they stopped womens education to force them to marry. But after the beginning of the war women were allowed back into the workplace to make up for the shortages of men.
There were riots across Germany against the Jewish population, many Jewish people after this point were forced out of their homes and jobs
-The Napilas boarding schools that were later taken over by the SS, over 40 were created by 1938
- The Adolf Hitler School, were under the control of the Hitler Youth, only 10 were opened
- The Ordensburgen, were intended to be finishing schools for the Nazi elite
The Hitler youth was a huge organisation that sought to control and indoctrinate all young people, boys engaged in sports and games and girls were taught domestic skills and physical fitness. During the war they helped with events such as the harvest.
Any Jewish wealth was siezed and they were banned from using public buildings or areas, Jewish Children in state schools were expelled and many were removed from Germany.
a bomb plot against hitler that failed and lead to the arrest of thousands of people.
After Hitler committed suicide at the end of April 1945 a new German government was briefly formed but the new government was rapidly disbanded by the victorious allies. Many leading Nazis also committed suicide and the civilians were desperate to have a normal life as many thousands were left homeless, overcrowded or with ill health.
Following their surrender in 1945 all German forces were disbanded, none of the allied states were allowed a military until 1955.
In the soviet zone the first political party license was granted to the KPD, followed by the SPD who merged in 1946 to create the SED. A number of liberal partied merged to form the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (LDPD) while the catholic center part and the protestant parties formed the CDU. The National Democratic party of Germany was designed to incorporate former Nazis and the Democratic Peasants party was supposed to include to poorest germans.
American, British and soviet heads of government met in Potsdam to discuss what to do with Germany, which was split up into four zones, with each of the alliance group having a section. Germany was to be , denazified and democratised.
In the west the following applied
- political parties has to be formed in a district
- the military government can allow parties which have been formed to join the parties from other areas
- membership to political parties must be voluntary
The SPD and the KPD quickly reformed as well as the CDU, lots of smaller parties formed in West Germany to support people such as refugees.
Major war criminals were tried at these trials but these were only the highest of the Nazi hierarchy, many people wanted the lesser Nazis to be imprisoned but this was impractical so the government set about cleansing the German people of their Nazi influences.
The Western policy for dealing with Nazis became a case by case analysis, done through a detailed questionnaire, the penalties could be fines or imprisonment so people heavily downplayed their involvement, and affidavits or persil certificates, a pledge assuring good character were often used.
The Marshall plan was a generous package of economic aid to all European countries who would accept its terms, Germany particularly benefited.
The Soviet Union sought to cut off West Berlin, so they blocked off all transport links to the city. The Allies responded with the Berlin Airlift, planes repeatedly flew provisions into Berlin, this continued for nearly a year until the soviets lifted the blockade.
It stated they has the Vokskammer, which claimed to be representative of the people, the Landerkammer, which represented the five lander, the council of state was the head of state. However the real political force remained the ruling communist party.
Adenauer's CDU was only able to take the chancellorship after weeks of discussion about forming a coalition including the FDP and DP in leading ministerial positions because he received less than a third of the vote.
The French, English and American sections of Germany merged to form Trizonia
Following the first free elections for 17 years the conservative chancellor Konrad Adenaur took power, he ruled for 14 years, developing the FRG fully in that time. Adenauer, throughout his time as chancellor tried to make west germany indispensable to western powers, but in doing so he abandoned the East and refused to have any part to play in what was happening there.
The FRG was a federal state in which Lander retained considerable power over regional affairs and were represented at a national level in the upper chamber, the bundesrat. members of the lower chamber, the Bunderstag, were elected by a complex voting system which included proportional representation of the parties voted for and a first past the post system.
Following a series of successes in foreign policy Adenauer and the CDU saw a hugely increased vote, however he still chose to run a coalition government including an ex Nazi as the minister for refugees and expellees
With tightening of borders, enforced collectivization of agriculture and the emphasis of enhanced productivity the people were becoming angry. The workers on Berlins prestige building project downed tools and marched into the house of ministries demanding the retraction of the raised work norms, there was a mass uprising and hundreds of thousands of workers joined them, by the end of the day tanks were bought into control the crowds.
The Jugendweihe was imposed on youth east germans, it was set up to rival the confirmation, without it children were discriminated against in school and were prevented from having any kind of professional career outside of school.
The German states were allowed to have armies formed under the strict control of NATO and the warsaw pact respectively.
After further successes in foreign affairs and with clear evidence of rapid economic growth the CDU/CSU scored over 50% of the vote
As the presidential elections were taking place Adenauer was considered with the prospect of the SPD gaining the power, so initially stood for the presidency however soon stood down, highlighting his increasing weakness.
The CDU/CSU vote only declined slightly however Adenauer, who was now 85, was very obviously losing his grip.
On the morning of the 13th August berliners woke to find that access between the two sides of the city had been cut off, western powers chose not to intervene and so the cold war intensified as neither side was willing to attack the other.
By this point the majority of the medical profession was made up of doctors, the majority of whom were women. Women were given increased support in order to ensure their full participation in the workforce as well as being wives and mothers.
Those from previously low backgrounds were helped to move upwards however those who were high up were bought down.
A coalition government between the SPD and the FDP lead by the SPD chancellor Willy Brandt