AS level modern History

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Weimar Republic

Jan 19 1919 - March 5 1933
  • The Weimar government was based on a coalition between the SPD, the center party and the DDP. The SPD provided the first president, Ebert and the Chancellor Phillipp Sceidemann. Their first main task was to draft a new constitution and to negotiate a peace treaty with the Allied powers.
  • The government of Germany was made responsible to the reichstag which was elected according to proportional representation.
  • the head of state was the president who was directly elected by the people for seven years, he had the power to choose the chancellor, order a referensum and was empowered to call a state of emergency to safeguard public security.

Treaty of Versailles

May 7 1919

The terms of the treaty were
- the demand for reparations to be increased to include family allowances and pensions for the wounded soldiers
- Land that contained valuable natural resources was taken from Germany and redistributed
- Germany would lose all colonies and foreign investments
- they would lose most of their merchant navy and almost all of its army who were forbidden from having tanks, aircraft, submarines or gas.
- the treaty declared that Germany was responsible for starting the war

The Kapp Putsch

march 10 1920 - march 18 1920

Wolfgang Kapp, a founding member of the Fartherland party marched into Luttwitzand called for eberts resignation and for the reprieve of the freikorps, when the government refused they marched into Berlin and proclaimed kapp as the chancellor, they fled and traveled around the country but had little success except in Bavaria where they replaces the Bavarian government with a right wing regime/ He was defeated and on March 18th fled to Sweden to avoid arrest.

The Ruhr Uprising

april 1920

A workers uprising in in the Ruhr, was the product of a communist red army of around 80 000 men, bu 20th March they controlled most of the Ruhr.

Election

june 6 1920

The election of the 6th June was a disaster for the Weimar, the SPD and the DDP lost many seats while the USPD, DVP and DNCP clocked up gains. A new minority coalition formed under the center party.

Reparations

April 30 1921

By the end of April the German debt was fixed at 132 billion, which would induce a huge bought of economic depression and unemployment

Munich Putsch

Nov 9 1923

Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich on what they thought would be a triumphal march to take power, however, Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements. There was a short scuffle in which the police killed 16 Nazis.
Hitler fled, but was arrested two days later.

Hindenburg's presidential election

April 1925

After president Ebert died in February 1925 the elections were held, in the first ballot the winner needed an absolute majority but in the second a majority was enough, so Hindenberg won in the second election.

Hitler released from prison

Dec 25 1925

Hitler was released from prison and needed to rebuild his party and reestablish his power, as the Nazi party had been outlawed until a ban was lifted in Bavaria in January 1925 he could not do much. Hitler did no routine politics or administration and men such as Rudolph Hess took care of things such as this.

Nazi Party is rebuilt

Jan 1926

The ban on the Nazi party was lifted in Bavaria and so Hitler began to rebuild the party, he never revised the party's 1920 programme but modified it to attract new supporters, his book mein kampf became the guide to Nazi ideology

Great Depression

1929 - 1932
  • the volume of world trade fell by 70%
  • unemployment rose to 6 million in Germany
  • almost one worker in three was unemployed
  • those in work had to accept wage cuts and part time work

Heinrich Himmler becomes head of the SS

1929

The SS became an organisation responsible only to Hitler who were responsible for the party's intelligence and espionage, he hoped it would become the new racial elite.

Breakthrough election

Sept 14 1930

The election on the 14th September 1930 was a huge success for the Nazi party following the propaganda campaign of Joseph Goebbels the Nazi party became the second largest in the Reichstag

Bruning dismissed

May 29 1932

Hindemberg dismissed Bruning in may 1932 because
- his economic policies were unpopular and caused morale and support to be low.
- the nationalists who were influential with Hindenburg and the Nazis were bitterly opposed to him
- the army disliked him and his policies
- Bruning was planning to redistribute large amounts of land to the unemployed which angered the rich

The Nazis most successful election

July 31 1932

The nazis became the largest party in the reichstag

Media staff changed

1933

The staff of all radio and newspaper companies were purged of left wingers of Jews. The reich radio company controlled all radio broadcasts and ensured that they were politically appropriate but also that the shows were not only political broadcasts. The same was done across all media.

Concentration camps set up

1933

In early 1933 concentration camps and torture chambers were set up in Germany they were used by the SA by 1939 there were 21 000 prisoners in concentration camps who ranged from political enemies to habitual criminals and homosexuals. By the end of the war there were over 720 000 inmates. The camps were regularly used as sources of labor for the war effort.

Employment promise

Feb 1933

Hitler promised to solve the unemployment problem within four years of taking power. Many unemployed people were moved from the labor marked and were employed temporarily by organisations such as the voluntary labour service which in 1935 employed over half a million young men. In May 1835 compulsorary military service was introduced for all 18 year old males, the armed forces took a large proportion of the unemployed. The law for reduction of unemployment meant that the government could squeeze women out of work by offering young couples an interest free loan worth up to 1000 reichsmarks for as long as the wife remained at home. The motor industry was helped by tax concessions. The length of the working week was shortened so more people were needed to do the work.

Hitler meets with the army

Feb 1933

After General von Blomberg banned officers from joining the Nazi party Hitler met with the army and won them over by promising to respect the army's traditions and political neutrality. He did however set up the reich defense council on which blomberg had a seat so he maintained control.

Reichstag Fire

Feb 27 1933

Enabling act was passed

March 23 1933

The nazis remained the largest party in the reichstag and the enabling act was passed 444 votes to 94, the SS surrounded the Kroll Opera house and the SA lined the corridors
Hitler became Chancellor

The Coordination law

March 31 1933

Under this law the Lander diets were reconstituted to reflect the share of different parties in the reichstag.

Control of propaganda

April 1933

By the Spring of 1933 Joseph Goebbels controlled broadcasting and ensured all converge was favorable to the government and Hitler.

Gestapo set up

April 1933

The gestapo was set up by Doring to maintain discipline in the factories and keep political and ideological opponents of the regime under surveillance. It quickly attained a mythical status as an all seeing all knowing arm of state security and law enforcement but in reality it was a very small organisation and never had over 20 000 members in the whole of Germany, they depended on members of the public to tell on their neighbors.

THe law for the re-establishment of the Civil Service

April 1933

enabled anyone deemed politically unreliable to be removed from public office

Second law of coordination

April 7 1933

under this law the reich governors who were the local Nazi leader were appointed with powers to make their own laws.

Trade Unions replaced

May 2 1933

After the failure of a public holiday in honor of National labor and the unions on the 2nd May the SA and SS occupied trade union offices throughout Germany and many trade union officials were beaten up and put into concentration camps, after this point all unions were replaced by the German labor front which all workers and employers had to enroll.

SPDs assets and files seized

May 10 1933

Adolf Hitler donation

June 1 1933

Industrialists were recommended to pay a donation to Hitler to express gratitude for the elimination of trade unions and in anticipation of the economic upturn.

DNVP dissolved

June 1933

Following the death of their leader Ernst Oberforen the DNDP agreed to dissolve.

SPD banned

June 21 1933

This lead to an outbreak of violence against the SPD and Communists, around 3000 officers were put in prisons or concentration camps and 91 were killed.

SA became secondary

July 1933

The SA became an embarrading reminder of the years that had passed, they became a threat to the actual army and lead to rivalry.

Change to the School curriculum

July 10 1933

The curriculum in all German schools was changed so that it was Nazi appropriate. All subjects found links to Nazi ideology and practice and all young people were taught what they would have needed as Nazi adults.

Concordat

July 14 1933

The concordat was an agreement between the Nazis and the catholic church that agreed
- the catholic church was guaranteed religions freedom, the right to administer itself and appoint its clergy and to run faith schools and youth groups

Lander diets dissolved.

Jan 1934

the lander diets were dissolved and the state governments were integrated with the state government.

Military conscription reintroduced

Jan 1934

Gleichschaltung

Feb 1934

Hitler was able to create a one party centralized reich, through various means and with varying degrees of success the Nazis tried to control every aspect of the reich.

The Night of the long Knives

June 29 1934

Hitler summoned a meeting of SA leaders for the following day at Wiesee in Bacaria, both the army and the SS were put on alert. The SA leaders were arrested and locked in a room before being taken to munich before being shot.

Political Offence laws

December 1934
  • Anyone convicted of making hateful remarks about the Nazi state and its leaders could be executed
  • peoples coutrs were set up to try communists and other enemies of the regime
  • judges were instructed to be much tougher in sentencing
  • by 1939 to become a judge it was necessary to make a serious study of national socialism and its ideological foundations.

Only fully Aryan people can be members of the SS

1935

National socialist teachers league formed

May 1936

The organisation responsible for all teachers in Germany, the league was responsible for the political indoctrination of teachers

Grammar School Education stopped for women

1937

The Nazis did not want women to be educated or to work, they wanted them to marry and have children, raising the next generation of Nazis. To do this they stopped womens education to force them to marry. But after the beginning of the war women were allowed back into the workplace to make up for the shortages of men.

Night of the Broken Glass

November 9 1938

There were riots across Germany against the Jewish population, many Jewish people after this point were forced out of their homes and jobs

All new German schools established

December 1938

-The Napilas boarding schools that were later taken over by the SS, over 40 were created by 1938
- The Adolf Hitler School, were under the control of the Hitler Youth, only 10 were opened
- The Ordensburgen, were intended to be finishing schools for the Nazi elite

  • Nazi propaganda and work failed at universities because most university teachers were skeptical of Nazi ideology.

WWII starts

1939

Membership to Hitler Youth made compulsory

1939

The Hitler youth was a huge organisation that sought to control and indoctrinate all young people, boys engaged in sports and games and girls were taught domestic skills and physical fitness. During the war they helped with events such as the harvest.

Jews separated from society

April 1939

Any Jewish wealth was siezed and they were banned from using public buildings or areas, Jewish Children in state schools were expelled and many were removed from Germany.

July bomb plot

july 20 1944

a bomb plot against hitler that failed and lead to the arrest of thousands of people.

Hitlers suicide

April 1945

After Hitler committed suicide at the end of April 1945 a new German government was briefly formed but the new government was rapidly disbanded by the victorious allies. Many leading Nazis also committed suicide and the civilians were desperate to have a normal life as many thousands were left homeless, overcrowded or with ill health.

German forces disbanded

May 1945

Following their surrender in 1945 all German forces were disbanded, none of the allied states were allowed a military until 1955.

Politics in the Soviet Zone

June 1945

In the soviet zone the first political party license was granted to the KPD, followed by the SPD who merged in 1946 to create the SED. A number of liberal partied merged to form the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (LDPD) while the catholic center part and the protestant parties formed the CDU. The National Democratic party of Germany was designed to incorporate former Nazis and the Democratic Peasants party was supposed to include to poorest germans.

Potsdam Agreement

August 1945

American, British and soviet heads of government met in Potsdam to discuss what to do with Germany, which was split up into four zones, with each of the alliance group having a section. Germany was to be , denazified and democratised.

Act One of directive for western politics

Sept 15 1945

In the west the following applied
- political parties has to be formed in a district
- the military government can allow parties which have been formed to join the parties from other areas
- membership to political parties must be voluntary

The SPD and the KPD quickly reformed as well as the CDU, lots of smaller parties formed in West Germany to support people such as refugees.

Nuremberg War trials

November 1945

Major war criminals were tried at these trials but these were only the highest of the Nazi hierarchy, many people wanted the lesser Nazis to be imprisoned but this was impractical so the government set about cleansing the German people of their Nazi influences.

Fragebogen

1946

The Western policy for dealing with Nazis became a case by case analysis, done through a detailed questionnaire, the penalties could be fines or imprisonment so people heavily downplayed their involvement, and affidavits or persil certificates, a pledge assuring good character were often used.

Iron Curtain speech

March 1946

The Marshall Plan

June 1947

The Marshall plan was a generous package of economic aid to all European countries who would accept its terms, Germany particularly benefited.

The Berlin Blockade

June 1948 - May 1949

The Soviet Union sought to cut off West Berlin, so they blocked off all transport links to the city. The Allies responded with the Berlin Airlift, planes repeatedly flew provisions into Berlin, this continued for nearly a year until the soviets lifted the blockade.

GDR constitution of 1949

1949

It stated they has the Vokskammer, which claimed to be representative of the people, the Landerkammer, which represented the five lander, the council of state was the head of state. However the real political force remained the ruling communist party.

Election in the FRG

1949

Adenauer's CDU was only able to take the chancellorship after weeks of discussion about forming a coalition including the FDP and DP in leading ministerial positions because he received less than a third of the vote.

Trizonia formed

April 1949

The French, English and American sections of Germany merged to form Trizonia

Adenaur took power in the FRG

August 1949

Following the first free elections for 17 years the conservative chancellor Konrad Adenaur took power, he ruled for 14 years, developing the FRG fully in that time. Adenauer, throughout his time as chancellor tried to make west germany indispensable to western powers, but in doing so he abandoned the East and refused to have any part to play in what was happening there.

The FRG was a federal state in which Lander retained considerable power over regional affairs and were represented at a national level in the upper chamber, the bundesrat. members of the lower chamber, the Bunderstag, were elected by a complex voting system which included proportional representation of the parties voted for and a first past the post system.

Election in the FRG

1953

Following a series of successes in foreign policy Adenauer and the CDU saw a hugely increased vote, however he still chose to run a coalition government including an ex Nazi as the minister for refugees and expellees

Uprising in GDR

June 17 1953

With tightening of borders, enforced collectivization of agriculture and the emphasis of enhanced productivity the people were becoming angry. The workers on Berlins prestige building project downed tools and marched into the house of ministries demanding the retraction of the raised work norms, there was a mass uprising and hundreds of thousands of workers joined them, by the end of the day tanks were bought into control the crowds.

Jugendweihe

1954

The Jugendweihe was imposed on youth east germans, it was set up to rival the confirmation, without it children were discriminated against in school and were prevented from having any kind of professional career outside of school.

German states allowed military

1955

The German states were allowed to have armies formed under the strict control of NATO and the warsaw pact respectively.

Election in the FRG

1957

After further successes in foreign affairs and with clear evidence of rapid economic growth the CDU/CSU scored over 50% of the vote

The Spiegel affair

1959

As the presidential elections were taking place Adenauer was considered with the prospect of the SPD gaining the power, so initially stood for the presidency however soon stood down, highlighting his increasing weakness.

Election in the FRG

1961

The CDU/CSU vote only declined slightly however Adenauer, who was now 85, was very obviously losing his grip.

Berlin wall erected

Aug 13 1961

On the morning of the 13th August berliners woke to find that access between the two sides of the city had been cut off, western powers chose not to intervene and so the cold war intensified as neither side was willing to attack the other.

Adenauer resigned

1963

Upward Social mobility

1965

By this point the majority of the medical profession was made up of doctors, the majority of whom were women. Women were given increased support in order to ensure their full participation in the workforce as well as being wives and mothers.
Those from previously low backgrounds were helped to move upwards however those who were high up were bought down.

New Coalition forms in the FRG

1969

A coalition government between the SPD and the FDP lead by the SPD chancellor Willy Brandt