1000 B.C - 324 A.D
Plebians won a number of privileges. Great families still secured domination however the plebians now felt that had a more favorable position in the system and were more wiling to fight for their country.
Series of wars. Conflicts between Rising Roman empire and the Carthaginian empire. At first punic war Carthage had more naval power and was the dominant power. By the end of the third punic war rome had conquered Carthages empire and razed the city. Rome emerged as the dominant mediterranean power one of the most powerful cities in classical world. Gave rome preeminent status till fifth century AD.
(138 BC - 78 BC) Roman general and statesman. Held office as consul twice as well as the dictatorship. One of the great men of Roman History. Came into dictatorship during the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain power of the oligarchy in the form of the Senate, latter resulted in naked populism culminating in Caesars dictatorship. Gifted general who never lost a battle. Revived office of dictator which had been unused since second punic war. Retired his dictatorship later in life.
Attempted to rule Rome with his brother Gaius Gracchus. Tried to reform social and political structure to help lower classes. Came to power at beginning of decline of the republic when personalities came to dominate politics and major battles were civil. The period ended with assasination of caesar and rise of first roman emperor Augustus.
Lived through the times of the first Triumvirate. He was sent to Rome to complete his education which was interrupted by military service. He was elected Consul in 63 BC when he dealt with alleged conspiracy against state by Catiline. Driven into exile by Caesar because he refused to ally with the triumvirate and criticized their right to govern.
Caesar, Pompey and Marcus Crassus form an allegiance to consolidate political power. After death of Crassus in 53BC Caesar and Pompey fight civil war in which Pompey is killed and Caesar becomes perpetual dictator.
(63 BC - 14 AD) Considered first emperor of the Roman Empire. Ruled alone from 27 BC till 14 AD. Was adopted by Julius Caesar in his last will. Inherited Caesars assets and joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus to form the military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. The triumvirate was torn apart by competition. Lepidus was driven into exile and Antony committed suicide after being defeated by Augustus in the battle of Actium. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace in the Mediterranean that lasted more than 2 centuries.
(37 BC - 9 AD) Emperor from 54 to 68. Increased culture in capitol by building theaters and promoting athletic games. Negotiated peace with Parthian empire. Supressed a revolt in Britain and began the first Roman-Jewish war. Great fire of Rome happened in 64. in 68 a Rebellion in Gaul drove him from the throne. Facing assassination, nero committed suicide in 68. Known for a number of execution, persecution of Christians. Few sources show Nero in good light because of few sources and his accounts of Christian tyranny.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman Imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between AD 69 and AD 96, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96). The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho died in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was quickly challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who declared their commander Vespasian Emperor in his place. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, who entered Rome on December 20. The following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, economic and military events took place during their reign. The Flavians initiated economic and cultural reforms. Under Vespasian, new taxes were devised to restore the Empire's finances, while Domitian revalued the Roman coinage by increasing its silver content. A massive building programme was enacted to celebrate the ascent of the Flavian dynasty, leaving multiple enduring landmarks in the city of Rome, the most spectacular of which was the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum.
(53 - 117 AD) Born to a non-patrician family and rose to prominence during reign of emperor Domitian. Served as general of Roman army along German frontier, put down revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. Marcus Cocceius Nerva succeeds Domitian and he adopts Trajan as his heir. Trajan comes into power and is best known for extensive public building. Reshaped Rome and built multiple landmarks, Trajans Forum, Trajans Market, Trajans Column. Trajan's was recognized almost as a diety after his death and his reign was honored by a prayer in his name
(244 - 305 AD) Born to a Roman family of low status. Rose through military ranks to cavalry commander under emperor Carus. After Carus's death Diocletian defeated his son in battle of Margus to ascend to power as emperor. Ended the crisis of the Third century. Started a Tetrarchy or rule by four where three of his sub appointed junior co-emperors ruled a quarter of the empire. Secured borders and purged all threats to the empire. Achieved lasting and favorable peace. Failed at curving inflation. Tetrarchic system ended after his reign. Persecuted more Christians than any other emperor. Helped stabalize empire economically and militarily. First empire to voluntarily give up his position when he fell ill later in life.
(272 AD - 337 AD) Was emperor from 306 to 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor. Reversed the persecutions of Christians imposed by previous rulers. Issued Edict of Milan in 313 which proclaimed religious tolerance of of Christians throughout the empire. Foremost general of his time, defeated emperors Maxentius and Licinius during civil wars. Transformed Greek colony of Byzantine into the imperial residence Constantinople which became capitol of the Eastern Roman Empire for over one thousand years.