Timeline Assignment Benton

Main

Religion began

10,000 BCE - 300 BCE

Jomon period. Earliest roots of Shinto found so far. There is no one date Shinto began.(Shinto)

Hinduism begins

2600 BCE - 1700 BCE

Earliest known date Hinduism was practiced, in the Indus Valley

Hinduism: Aryans migrate into the Northwest India area

2000 BCE - 1300 BCE

1) Technological advanced with the chariot, the Aryans proved themselves to be the dominant system. The origin of Hinduism may be in the blending of ancient Aryan and Dravidian cultures. (Hinduism)

Vedas composed in Sanskrit

1500 BCE - 600 BCE

Mainly used only in ritual, the Vedas play an iconic role in the Hinduism religion. (Hinduism)

Date the religion began

1210 BCE

BCE earliest known references to the Israelites. Pharoah Merneptah's victory over Israel. (Judaism)

Torah process transcribing oral tradition began and ended

1000 BCE - 200 BCE

Compiled The first five books of the Hebrew Bible.(Judaism)

King Solomon lives (Judaism)

961 BCE - 922 BCE

Son of King David, ruled at the height of Israel's establishment. Built the First Temple, replacing the portable tent of Moses in Judaism.

Vedas, the earliest Hindu texts, are composed.

900 BCE - 600 BCE

Made of a set of 4 texts of treaties as well as ancillary hymns. Used in ritual. (Hinduism)

Upanishads written

900 BCE - 600 BCE

Offering a philosophical approach to religion, play iconic role in the Hinduism religion. (Hinduism)

Heian presently known as Kyoto established as permanent capital

794 BCE

Moved the capital because of the death of the Emperor, following the Shinto idea of the impurity of death. Shows Shintos rise to power along its contemporary Buddhism. A time when the two got along. (Shinto)

Chunqui, Spring and Autumn Annuals

722 BCE - 481 BCE

Covers the late Zhou period from the perspective of the Lu.(Confucianism)

Founder Daoism Lao Tzu is born (Confucianism)

604 BCE

Founder of Daoism Lao Tzu is born(Confucianism)

Mahavira

599 BCE - 527 BCE

Jainism does not view Mahavira as the founder of the religion. However, he did found a large community of Jain monks and nuns and created the current form of Jainism we know.

First Temple is destroyed (Judaism)

578 BCE

Babylonian exile.The Israelite kingdomom sof Isralel and Judah were destroyed, thousands of Israelites orced out of their home, but remained in national memory. Became archetype for all future disasters.

Kong Qiu , founder of Confucianism

551 BCE - 479 BCE

Kong Qiu known as Confucius lived (Confucianism)

Jainism founded

550 BCE

While Jainism cites itself as being eternal, it is not known to appear until 550 with Mahavira (Jainism)

Date the religion Daoism began

550 BCE

(Daoism)

The Analects compiled, religious text for Confucianism

500 BCE

Covers teachings by Confucius compiled by his students. (Confucianism)

Date the religion began

500 BCE

Religion began

First Buddhist Council called together.

486 BCE

After Buddha’s death, formalized oral canon and established authority for community.(Buddhism)

Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism.

480 BCE - 405 BCE

Born in northeast India (Buddhism)

450 BCE. Buddhism founded

450 BCE

The Buddha's enlightenment and first sermon. (Buddhism)

Acaranga Sutra

450 BCE - 150 BCE

First of the eleven Angas, part of the agamas religious texts which were compiled based on the teachings of Mahavira (Jainism)

Xiao Jing, Classic of Filial Piety composed (Confucianism)

400 BCE

Covers Confucian thought and advice on how one may respect an elder, filial piety.(Confucianism)

Mencius, or Master Meng, lived

371 BCE - 289 BCE

Contributed to the Confucian religion by helping creating the resurgence of Confucianism, reaffirming the moral cultivation in Confucianism as a religious calling as well as upholding the Confucianism belief of the basic goodness of human beings.(Confucianism)

Zhuangzi Daoist text written

350 BCE

A narrative of work, influencing the beliefs of the Daoist religion

Sutrakritanga Sutra compiled

350 BCE

Is the second agama of the 12 main angās of the Jain canons. This agama describes nonviolence, Jain metaphysics, and the refutation of other religious theories such as Kriyavada, Akriyavada, Ajnanavada, and Vinayavada. On destiny, on monks conduct with women. (Jainism)

Xunzi (Master Xun) lived

298 BCE - 238 BCE

Huge influence on the rituals, learning, popularity and practice of the Confucian movements of 200 CE, but diverged from Confucian with the belief humans are selfish. However, upheld and spread the main idea that humanity could attain perfection through self-effort, expanding the philosophical and worldly views of Confucianism. (Confucianism)

Ashoka, emperor of the Mauryan Dynyasty born and died

268 BCE - 232 BCE

United the subcontinent of South Asia, exemplifying the ideal of Buddhist kingship. (Buddhism)

Ramayana written

200 BCE - 200 CE

Important source of Hindu notions and ideas of social and filial duty. A tale about Rama and his wife, stolen by Ravana, a ten headed demon.(Hinduism)

Mahayana sutras written

200 BCE - 200 CE

Purpose to define the Bodhisattva path. (Buddhism)

First written version of Buddhist Pali Cannon

25 BCE

Main collection of scriptures followed by Theravada Buddhist beliefs.(Buddhism)

Daodejing (Daoism)

6 BC

The scripture of the Way and Its Potential Manifestation written.(Daoism) Guiding scripture for Daoists.

Destruction of Buddhist Universities Nalanda and Vikramisila

0 BCE - 1200 CE

Mark the decline of Buddhism in India. Muslim Turks raided the universities, which received no protection from surrounding lands (Buddhism)

Date the christianity religion began

30 CE

Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Christianity)

Jesus Christ Founder of the Religion

30 CE

(Christianity)

First Jewish War with Rome (Judaism)

66 CE - 70 CE

Zealots believed God was on their side to rid Israel of Roman influence, directly engaged in battle with Rome and lost. Later, Rome over took he land and destroyed the Second Jewish temple

Bar Kokhba Would-be messiah, except he was defeated

100 CE - 135 CE

Incited the second Jewish Roman war, leading to the destruction of the Second Temple, a sacred place in Judaism. (Judaism)

Confucianism is declared Orthodox

136 CE

Han dynasty replaces the Qin dynasty and ushers in a new state designated orthodoxy, changing the nature of the religion from a personal moral tool and supporter of benevolent government to a scholastic teacher and means for state control supporting patriarchal authoritarianism (Confucianism)

Nagarjuna born in southern India

150 CE - 250 CE

Taught Buddha's Perfection of Wisdom Sutras along with many sutras himself, founded the Mahyamika school of Buddhist philosophy. Believed every individual is a potential Buddha. (Buddhism)

Publishment of Baopuzi (Daoism)

200 CE

Influences the basic tenants of Daoism.(Daoism)

Constantine decrees religious freedom for Christians.

213 CE

The significant of the ruler Constantine is the ability of Christians to practice in public (Christianity)

Wei Huacun is born

251 CE - 334 CE

The first female leader of the Shangqing sect, shows the progress of the Daoist religion for women.

Gupta empire rises, ruled most of Northern India, land of Hinduism

320 CE - 540 CE

2) Time of peace and prosperity, major epics were formed and first of puranas compiled(major religions texts), spread of Hinduism sects, and expansion of Hinduism to southeast Asia changed and advanced the face of Hinduism. (Hinduism)

The Council of Nicaea adopts what becomes the Nicene Creed

325 CE

still accepted by Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and many Protestant churches as a fundamental statement of their faith. The Nicene Creed was designed to be the definitive statement of the Christian belief known as Trinitarianism. (Christianity)

Augustine of Hippo lived

354 CE - 430 CE

First great theologican of the West and Author of the Confessions and City of God (Christianity)

Kou Qianzhi is born, (Daoism)

365 CE - 448 CE

Revives Taoism of Heavenly Masters. (Daoism)

New Testament Established

367 CE

Second half of the Bible, a sacred Christian text. (Christianity)

Talmund written down. Considered Oral Torah

500 CE

Instructing traditions supposedly imparted by God to Moses on Sinai but never written down (Judaism)

Benedictine Rule written by Benedict of Nursia

529 CE

leading guide for monastic living in the West.(Christianity)

Khadija

555 CE - 620 CE

Wife to founder of religion, Muhammad. Considered first follower of Islamic faith.(Islam)

Muhammad

570 CE - 632 CE

Founder of the Religion of Islam (Islam)

'Ali killed

601 CE - 661 CE

First person who accepted Islam. Sunnis, a sect of Islam, consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs).(Islam)

Qur'an. Most sacred text of Islamic beliefs

610 CE - 632 CE

Speaks of the nature of God, and provides Guidelines for moral behavior. (Islam)

Date the religion began

622 CE

The migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, start of the Muslim calendar. (Islam)

2) Sunnah written

627 CE

Muhammad's actions and words. How he did things, conducted himself. (Islam)

Period of rightly guided Caliphs

632 CE - 661 CE

First wave of Conquests of Iran, Greater Syria, Egypt, and Sudan. Expansion of Islam.(Islam)

Emperor Taizong issues an edict, Daoists take precedence over Buddhists.

637

Represents the power and prestige the Daoist have gained.(Daoism)

Kojiki Record of Ancient Matters completed

712

Contains ancient myths, for example on the kami and the formation of Japan. (Shinto)

Nihon-shoki or Nihongi, Chronicles of Japan completed

720 CE

Narrative text based on Kojiki, considered an authoritative texts on the myths of Shinto. (Shinto)

Adi Shankara lives

788 CE - 820 CE

Established Advaita Vedenta, proposing there is only one reality in an attempt to understand the relationships between Brahman, atman, and the world. A proposed theory that the world is illusory, offering the path of guidance to final liberation. Instrumental in the revival of Hinduism, establishing a number of monasteries. (Hinduism)

Crusades.military campagans sanctioned by Roman Church

1095 CE - 1453 CE

Fostered tension between Christianity and Muslims.(Islam)

Wang Zhe born

1113 CE - 1170 CE

Founded one of the most influential Daoist schools that combined Confucian, daoist and Buddhist principles. Showed they could work together. (Daoism)

Zhu Xi lived (Confucianism)

1130 CE - 1200 CE

He was a rational thinker significant to the Neo-Confucian movement, placing special emphasis on the four books the Analects, the Mencius, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean, causing their rise of popularity, and synthesized Confucian concepts. (Confucianism)

Thomas Aquinas, writes the Summa Theologica

1225 CE - 1274 CE

His work, a classic, synthesized the Catholic ideas and philosophies. Known for his five arguments to believe in God.Martin Luther lived. Posted the 95 theses on the church, creating protestant Christianity.(Christianity)

Quanzhen Sect founded (Daoism)

1279 CE - 1368 CE

(Daoism)

Kitabatake Chikafusa

1293 CE - 1354 CE

writer of the Jinno shotoki, his ideas advocated that the rule of Japanese emperors as a divine status supported by Shinto mythology.(Shinto)

Four Books designated as part of the Civil service examination curriculum

1313 - 1905

is designated part of the civil service examination curriculum. Important because it spreads Confucianism ideas to any would be scholar or military official.

Turkish Invaders pillage the Jainism location of Mount Shatrunjaya

1313 CE

A time of conflict between Muslim rule and the Jain religion. Resulted in destruction of many Jain sites on a large scale. (Jainism)

Daozong printed

1445 CE

Most complete canon framework of Daoist beliefs. (Daoism)

Guru Nanek founded religion of Sikhism

1469 CE - 1539 CE

(Sikhism)

1) Guru Amar Das

1479 CE - 1574 CE

Martin Luther lived

1483 CE - 1501 CE

Posted the 95 theses on the church, creating protestant Christianity (Christianity)

Township of Kartarpur is established by Guru Nanek as the first Sikh community.

1520 CE

Represents the beginning of the Sikh religion. (Sikhism)

Sikhism founded

1520

Henry VIII begins the Church of England

1527 CE

English King Henry VIII requests a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, so he can marry Ann Boleyn and procure a male heir. Pope Clement VII—who had earlier sanctioned Henry's marriage to his brother's widow—refuses. In 1532, Henry formally rejects the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, establishing the Church of England. He appoints himself to be supreme head of the Church and the Archbishop of Canterbury as senior bishop. This church grows into the Anglican denomination of the Protestant tradition (Christianity)

Akbar the Great.

1556 CE - 1605 CE

Encouraged peace between Jainism and Mughals, instituted laws banning animal slaughter and practiced the art of nonviolence and vegetarianism as taught to him by Jainism. (Jainism)

Guru Arjan lived.(Sikhism)

1563 CE - 1606 CE

Fifth Guru, compiled the sacred scripture of the Sikh religion, the Adi Granth.Also constructed sacred Golden temple, giving the sikhs a geographical center. (Sikhism)

Founding of the Sthanakvasi

1600 CE - 1700 CE

Do not have temples but prayer halls, a change in the practice of the Jain religion. (Jainism)

Adi Granth compiled

1604 CE

Sacred scripture compiled by Guru Arjan. Takes place of Gurus in tradition. (Sikhism)

Guru Gobind Singh Lived

1666 CE - 1708 CE

Believed to be the greatest Guru after the founder, because he instituted the Khalsa, redefined the Panth, installed the Adi granth.(Sikhism)

Khalsa was founded by Guru Gobind Singh

1699 CE

(Sikhism)

Israel ben Eliezer, established Hasidic movement of Judaism(Judaism)

1700 CE - 1760 CE

Promotes spirituality through Jewish mysticism.

Ibn Abd al-Wahhab

1703 CE - 1792 CE

1792 Established first Sadi state, designed to purge any other relgions or unorthodox practices of Islam (Islam)

Guru Gobind Singh dies, Sikhs is established as Guru

1708 CE

Important because the religious text takes the place of the Gurus. (Sikhism)

Acarya Bhikshu, the founder of the Terapanthi sect.

1726 CE - 1803 CE

Reformed Jainism to his beliefs of tolerance and nonviolence in the 18th century. (Jainism)

Acarya Bhikshu, the founder of the Terapanthi sect.

1726 CE - 1803 CE

Reformed Jainism to his beliefs of tolerance and nonviolence in the 18th century. (Jainism)

Motoori Norinaga

1730 CE - 1801 CE

Supported Shinto as the only religion that has specially chosen japan, loudly encouraged Shinto to be the state religion,influencing many, believing all other religions should be eradicated. (Shinto)

Kurozumi Munetada lived

1780 CE - 1850 CE

Established religious sect of Kurozumikyo, a combination of Shinto, Buddhism, and other beliefs, showing the ability of Shinto to combine with other religions.It is not a bad religion. (Shinto)

Sri Ramakrishna lives.

1836 CE - 1886 CE

Significant to Hinduism because he taught that it didn't matter what path or God one worshiped, they are all different approaches to one single reality, Brahman. He proposed conversion wasn't necessary, because we are all worshiping the same God. Interfaith dialogue became common afterward. (Hinduism)

T. W. Rhys- Davids was born.

1843 CE - 1922 CE

Translated Buddhist works into English text, leading to a movement of Buddhist philosophies in the Western world, giving life once again to the religion, even if it was more a philosophy.(Buddhism)

Shrimad Rajacandra, friend of Mahatma Gandhi

1867 CE - 1901 CE

Influenced Gandhi in his peaceful ways of nonviolence, sharing the Jainism ideals of nonviolence(Jainism)

State Shinto is created

1868 CE

Goal to unify Japan but leads to a mindset that the emperor is the chosen living divine kami, the fall of the Japan run by the military, a fanatical nationalism, and the Second World War.(Shinto)

Mahatma Gandhi

1869 CE - 1948 CE

Significant to Hinduism because of his change in the caste system, working to abolish “untouchables”. Religiously, socially, and politically reformed Hinduism beliefs and practices. (Hinduism)

Vircand Gandhi lectures the World of Religions in Chicago on Jainism.

1893 CE

Popularized the religion of Jainism and the practices of nonviolence, while defending the rights of Jains. (Jainism)

Founding of RSS; The National Volunteer Corps

1925 CE

Founded on the belief in defending Hindu beliefs from the threat posed by the Muslim world. Led to Gandhi's(important Hinduism leader) death. (Hinduism)

Shinto is separated from the state

1945 CE

Japan has lost WWII and surrenders to the allies, leading to the separation of Shinto religion from the state. (Shinto)

State of Israel established (Judaism)

1948 CE

Established Israel as home once more. However, change in identity of Israelites, some Jews choose to live Diaspora and join the Israelite community while others do not. (Judaism)

Sikh Rehat Maryada published

1950 CE

A guide on personal and public life, including ceremonies and worship. (Sikhism)

Buddhist Dalai Lama flees from India to Tibet

1959 CE

Marked the loss of Buddhist influence in Tibet, suppressed by China. (Buddhism)

Cultural Revolution occurs

1966 CE - 1976 CE

After being defeated by Great Britain, China began to blame Confucianism for it's loss. A campaign began to completely eradicate China of Confucianism, known as the Cultural Revolution, enforcing Communism instead. (Confucianism)

Keith Ellison

2006 CE

First Muslim to be elected into Congress (Islam)

Green movement, Iran

2009 CE

Protests against Fraudulent election in Iran, home of the Muslim religion.(Islam)