Europe 1885-1945

Political

How a certain event effected politics in Europe

"Germany gives Austria a Blank Check"

July 6, 1914

The telegram Germany sent to Austria is of huge importance in the history of World War I, as after the Serbs assassinated archduke Franz Ferdinand. Germany gave Austria a "blank check" meaning that they gave them their full support in the terms of war they would start with Serbia and ultimately which would start the World War I. (Documents of German History, 310)

World War I

July 28,1914 - November 11, 1918

World War I was a war between two opposing alliances, The Allies (UK, FR and RU) and the Central Powers (GE and AUS-HUN). Most notably it resulted in the end of German, Russian, Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires, as as well as formation of new countries in Erope and the Middle east.

Woodrow Wilson, The Fourteen Points

1918

The president of the United States of America Woodrow Wilson wrote a document called "The Fourteen Points" where he explained his ideas which would help end the conflicts in Europe in 1918, help keep the peace and spread democracy. (Sources for Western Society, 416)

March on Rome

october 22, 1922 - october 29, 1922

Benito Mussolini started the March on Rome with his Fascist party. Over 30,000 men marched on Rome as Mussolini basically overthrew the government and appointed fascism as the new government.

World War II

September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1945

Second world war which started with Germany invading Poland in 1939 and ended with Japan signing the surrender documents in 1945. It successfully ended the Third Reich and with it United States of America and the Soviet Union officially became known as superpowers.

Cultural

How a certain event effected the culture in Europe

I want YOU for the U.S. Army.

1917

Uncle Sam is a very popular figure that every American has heard of. Even in Croatia, we became educated about the Uncle Sam's posters which were used to promote recruiting of soldiers for both World War I and II. The painting of Uncle Sam, pointing at the person who is looking at it is very important culturally because I feel like it is one of the first where the painting "communicates" with the person looking at it.

Hitler's: Mein Kampf

1924

Adolf Hitler writes an autobiography and calls it Mein Kampf. In it he explained his views on politics and society. As this book has shaped the views of many, as a literature, it is a very important part of the European cultural history. (Sources for Western Society, 445)

Guernica

1937

Guernica is the most famous painting by the arguably most famous artist ever the have lived, Pablo Picasso. Guernica as a painting shows the tragedies of war and the results of bombing of a Spanish village Guernica, by German and Italian warplanes. It has incredible symbolism and it as a painting provides a voice which tells the world about the horrors of war.

Music in World War II

1939 - 1945

World War II was the first conflict that took place in the times when music was electronically distributed, thus was available to the majority of the citizens. Music has an incredibly important role in human culture, so I must mention the role of music during the World War II. As the troops had access to radio, music had an important role of raising morale and bringing hope. Furthermore, those songs, sang by soldiers of opposing forces will be remembered forever and will serve as cultural education for everyone interested in the topic.

Soviet propaganda posters

1941

After the German invasion of 1941, the Soviet Union used propaganda mainly depicted on posters, which promote nationalism and which expect emotional reactions from the citizens of the Soviet Union. As a form of art, these posters are a very important part of European cultural history in many ways. (Sources for Western Society, 446)

Individual and Collective Rights

How a certain event effected the rights of few or many

Clara Zetkin's- "Women's work and the Trade Union"

1887

German socialist and feminist Clara Zetkin writes an article arguing higher wages for both men and women, stating that by lowering wages for a job women can do lowers the wages for the same job men do which is bad for both sexes. Clara would eventually go on to form the German social democratic women's movement.

Women suffrage campaign before World War I

1909 - 1914

Helena Swanwick lead the women suffrage campaign in Britain. The campaign was massive and sometimes violent. Helena regarded the war as an opportunity for women to improve their social, economic and political status, which would happne.

19th Amendment

May 19, 1919

As we learned in class, during the World War I most of the men were sent of to battle and there was no one left to do the duties commonly considered to be only for men, but women. Women proved themselves more than capable to do those jobs. One thing leading to another, the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave women the right to vote.