Humphrey Davy accidently discovered that inhaling nitrous oxide (laughing gas) made you less aware of pain.
tools and instruments not clean. no uniforms. wide awake no anaesthetic. using an ordinary saw. most likely will die.
a dentist in the USA used nitrous oxide to dull pain when extracting teeth
William Morton .a dentist in the USA found that ether was a more long lasting anaesthetic. he used it to remove a growth from a patients neck. in Britain Robert Liston used it whilst amputating a leg.
James Simpson. became addicted
John Snow. made chloroform more usable.