Spanish Timeline (1563 - 1588)

In relation to Edexcel A2 unit 3 Early Modern History, Tudor England 1536 - 1588, specifically the reign of Elizabeth I

King of Spain

Philip II

1563 - 1588


Trade Embargo with England

1563 - 1565

In response to English intervention at Le Havre

Army of the Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands


English saw this as alarming, Cecil was concerned about the possibility of an invasion

John Hawkins, English Privateer, attacks shipping in the New World.


Was attacked in return by the Spanish. He managed to return to England, Elizabeth was angered

Gold Bullion Affair


Elizabeth seized Spanish ships carrying gold to the Netherlands

English merchants seized with their goods in the Netherlands


English respond in kind with Spanish merchants in England

Harassment of Spanish Shipping by the English

1570 - 1580

Privateers under orders of Elizabeth I
Affected Spanish communications with the Netherlands.
Not open war, Elizabeth wanted to put enough pressure on Philip II to end the revolt in the the Netherlands and restore the status quo

Papal Bull of Excommunication Against Elizabeth I


Regnans in Excelsis
Call for all Catholics to assassinate Elizabeth I
Philip more than happy about this (had previously defended Elizabeth against excommunication)

Ridolfi Plot


Plot to assassinate Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Catholic Mary Queen of Scots. Spanish ambassador involved. Detailed a Spanish invasion. Resulted in the expulsion of the Spanish Ambassador to England

Philip II took Portugal


Unification of the Iberian Peninsula and the two world empires, Philip at the height of his power

Elizabeth backed the Duke of Anjou in the Netherlands

1581 - 1582

Pro-Dutch, Failure

Marquis of Santa Cruz proposes the Spanish Armada


Invasion of England using the army in the Netherlands

Throckmorton Plot


Depose Elizabeth I with Mary Queen of Scots. Spanish invasion. Fails. Spanish Ambassador expelled

Treaty of Joinville


Treaty between Spain and the Catholic Guise Faction in France.

Elizabeth I's advisers encouraged military action in the Netherlands


Assassination of William of Orange


Treaty of Nonsuch


Elizabeth I of England become the Protector of the Dutch and sent 7000 troops to the Netherlands

Elizabeth I send Drake to attack Spain's ports to free English ships


Babington Plot


Depose Elizabeth I for Mary Queen of Scots, Spanish invasion. Implicated Mary Queen of Scots in the plot

Spain begins to prepare for the Armada


Execution of Mary Queen of Scots


For her involvement in the Babington Plot. Philip angered

Singing of the King of Spain's Beard


Drake's raid of the port of Cadiz where he destroyed thirty ships being used for the Armada and seasoned wood which is used to make the ships.
No other decent wood left to make more ships
Green Wooded needed to be used for barrels, resulting in food and water going bad and making many Spanish sailors ill

Spanish Armada


Spanish Defeat
Depose Elizabeth I for Mary Queen of Scots, (after 1587 the Infanta)
Parma's army to be collected and invade the South
English Catholics to rise in support.
Needed a Deep Sea Water Port to Embark their troops. The Port of Flushing was occupied by Dutch rebels, so they moved to Gravelines.
Duke of Medina Sidonia appointed as commander, a General rather than an Admiral.
Sailed in a crescent formation.
Sighted in Cornwall at the Lizard and beacons were lit in warning.
Armada harassed all the way up the channel by the smaller more maneuverable English ships.
Armada take port in Gravelines. English sent fire ships into the port at night. The Spanish panic at cut their anchors.
The Spanish armada are blown north. They are shipwrecked in both Scotland and Ireland where they were assaulted.