Republican President. Wanted Reconstruction to be run by Southerners and pardoned Southern plantation owners. Also tried (but failed due to an alliance between radical and moderate Republicans) to veto key legislature. Survived an impeachment attempt and quietened down afterwards.
Republican President. Broadly supported Reconstruction but dogged by financial scandals.
Republican President. Won on electoral college votes despite failing to win the popular vote. Therefore oversaw the Great Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction.
Republican President. Did little in terms of civil rights.
Democratic President. Upheld 1977 Compromise philosophy and did not question white supremacy. Also sent in federal troops to end the Pullman strike.
Republican President. Did little for civil rights.
Republican President. Held discussions with Booker T. Washington but no action followed.
Republican President. Saw civil rights as a state issue.
Democrat President. Oversaw US involvement in the First World War. A Southern President who supported segregation and dismissed all African Americans from federal positions. Also showed KKK film "The Birth of a Nation" in the White House.
Republican President. President during the boom years and believed in Laissez-faire. Claimed South had a "superior understanding" of African American civil rights.
Republican President. President during boom years and a believer of Laissez-faire. Claimed African Americans were "as sacred as every one else" but took no action.
Republican President. President during the Wall Street Crash and believed in Laissez-faire. Became very unpopular and lost to Roosevelt in a landslide defeat. Tried to appoint a racist Supreme Court judge but was successfully blocked by NAACP and also tried to use racism to beat F. Roosevelt, thereby ending black support for the Republicans.
Democrat President. Extremely popular, especially in contrast to Hoover. His New Deal did trade unions in particular a lot of good and tried to veto powers to allow presidents to sieze striking companies, but failed to take much positive action for African Americans due to his need for Southern Democrats to approve his radical New Deal.
Democrat President. Oversaw the Dixiecrat revolution in 1948 when Southern Democrats felt he was doing too much for African Americans but still won the election by a significant margin. However, congressional opposition meant little legislation as passed.
Republican President. Not necessarily sympathetic towards African American civil rights and preferred not to be directly involved (a notable exception being the events at Little Rock) but rather to let Congress run itself.
Democrat President. A young and very popular president and heavily influenced by his adviser, Attorney General and brother Robert Kennedy, he was very sympathetic towards African American civil rights but struggled to get legislation through Congress. Ultimately his most useful contribution was his assassination and the opportunity it gave Johnson.
Democrat President. Paradoxically a Southern Democrat who arguably did more for African American civil rights than any other president. He had already accumulated a great deal of experience in Congress having pushed through the 1957 and 1960 Civil Rights Acts and was a skilled politician, using the sympathy following Kennedy's death to pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Ultimately, the Vietnam War was his undoing and it severed relations between him and Martin Luther-King.
Republican President. Claimed to oppose further African American civil rights action but affirmative action and bussing. He did, however, take a hard line on the black panthers and oversaw their demise. He was brought down by the Watergate Scandal, forced to resign before he was impeached.
Republican President. Appointed the first black transport secretary (William T. Coleman) but was uneasy about too much federal intervention in civil rights.
Democrat President. PEANUT FARMER!!! Won the 1976 election by gaining 90% of the black vote. Southern Democrat but sympathetic towards African American civil rights.
Republican President. Negative towards all civil rights. Ended the New Deal philosophy and broke the PATCO strike, severely hindering the power and popularity of trade unions. Also claimed his administration was "colour blind" and ended affirmative action. Appointed fewer blacks than anyone since Eisenhower, and tried (and failed) to resist the new Voting Rights Act in 1982 and making MLK's birthday a public holiday in 1983. The Civil Rights Restoration Act had to be passed over his veto.
Republican President. Promised to be tough on crime, which (due to living conditions) was often black crime. Only 6.9% of his judicial appointments came from ethnic minorities and also appointed Clarence Thomas, a rare black conservative Republican, as a Supreme Court judge.
Freed all slaves in America.
The Freedman's Bureau was a government funded initiative to try to support newly freed slaves and train black lawyers, scientists and doctors. $17 million was spent setting up 4000 schools and 100 hospitals. However, it was unpopular in the south and ended in 1972 (was short-term) and in 1890, 65% of black school children were illiterate compared to 15% of white school children.
Divided the South into military districts until conventions set up new state governments and constitutions and were accepted into the union. The ex-confederate states were not accepted unless they ratifies the new amendments.
Granted full citizenship to all ethnic minorities except Native Americans (strengthened by the 14th Amendment).
Granted full citizenship and equal protection under the law to all ethnic minorities except Native Americans.
Granted all citizens the right to vote, regardless of "race, colour or previous condition of servitude". Did NOT include women.
Supreme Court case that stated that the 14th Amendment protected a person's individual rights but their state civil rights are at the discretion of state governments.
Hayes won the 1877 election but did not win the popular vote. In return for the Democrats recognising him as President, he had to remove military leaders from the South, effectively ending reconstruction.
Supreme Court ruling upholding segregation in the South, on the basis of "separate but equal".
Supreme Court ruling declaring Southern voting restrictions constitutional as they did not explicitly discriminate by race.
Riots at the birthplace (and burial site) of Abraham Lincoln after allegations of attempted rape. When police refused to give the man to the rioters, they took revenge by attacking and burning black homes and businesses. An 84 year old black man (rumoured to have made shoes for Lincoln) was lynched for being married to a white woman for 32 years.
The Supreme Court ruled in favour of the NAACP, saying the grandfather clauses in Maryland and Oklahoma were unconstitutional.
Supreme Court ruling that did not uphold the death sentences of 12 African Americans as their trials were dominated by white mobs.
Supreme Court case ruling that all state appeals must be used before coming to the Supreme Court. This meant the NAACP's work would become slower and more expensive.
7 of the 9 Supreme Court justices were replaced by Roosevelt in order to be more liberal and therefore more friendly towards his New Deal.
Supreme Court case looking into Southern segregation, and ruled separate really must be equal. However, it failed to challenge the principles of Plessy vs. Fergusson.
Supreme Court case ruling segregation unconstitutional as it was psychologically damaging (as proven by the Doll Test)
Supreme Court case that ruled segregation on buses following the ruling of Brown vs. Board of Education and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Supreme Court case ruling inter-state travel facilities illegal after the work of the freedom riders.
Landmark legislation passed due to Johnson's skilful exploitation of Congress after Kennedy's death.
Banned any restriction of the vote based on:
knowledge of politics
Supreme Court case that upheld bussing.
Supreme Court case that ruled federal funds would not be available for segregated higher education.
Supreme Court upholding affirmative action, saying it was unconstitutional for Griggs Power Company to require blacks to have a degree or pass an intelligence test due to previous educational discrimination.
Supreme Court case that ruled bussing is only constitutional if the segregation was deliberate.
Supreme Court case that ended affirmative action when white student Baake claimed he had been rejected from university because he was white, and therefore discriminated against on the basis of race.
This was despite President Reagan's reluctance.
Did NOT include Native Americans.
Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes defeat General Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn under leadership of Crazy Horse and Chief Gall. Added to perception as violent savages.
One of many schools formed to try to assimilate Native Americans, teaching them English and trade skills or domestic skills.
Formed to aid process of assimilation by largely religious White Americans. Had a base in Congress used to lobby Congress and criticised organisations such as the Board of Indian Commissioners, calling them dishonest and corrupt.
Allotted land to families using a patriarchal system, despite many tribes having a matriarchal system. Allotted all Native American Land except that of the 5 civilised tribes. Any remaining land was sold to White Americans. 72 million acres of 150 million acres was lost (48%)
Extended the Dawes Act to include the 5 civilised tribes, despite attempts by the tribes to form their own state of Sequoyah, but was rejected by Congress, despite winning the referendum at he convention. Another 2 million acres of land was lost and "Sequoyah" became part of the state of Oklahoma.
Lone Wolf attempted to sue Secretary of the Interior Ethan Hitchcock, claiming the Dawes Act was a breach of the Medicine Lodge Treaty. However, the Supreme Court ruled against him, declaring Federal Government to have "plenary power" over Native Americans.
In an attempt to keep the self-governing rights the Curtis Act would revoke the next year, the 5 civilised tribes attempted to create their own state called Sequoyah. Despite winning the referendum at the convention, Congress rejected the admission and the land was admitted as part of the State of Oklahoma.
Formed by 50 Native Americans, this was the first example of a group formed by Native Americans. It aimed to improve health, living conditions, civil rights and local governments, and largely supported assimilation. However, it was crippled by divisions and had very little lasting impact.
Criticised policy of allotment and conditions on reservations.
Made no reference to gender.