AP History timeline

AP History timeline

Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age

13000 BCE - 12000 BCE

2.5 Million years to 12,000 BCe
hunting & gathering
homo sapiens sapiens (dominated other human types)
humans developed:
~speech
~rituals
~culture

Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age

12000 BCE - 8000 BCE

more advanced tools
fought in more wars
increased population considerably

Neolithic Revolution

8000 BCE - 3500 BCE

sedentary agriculture:
~domesticated animals
~food surplus
~rising population
~specialization of occupations
pastoral nomadism
stone tools-->metal tools (copper, bronze)

Mesopotamia

4000 BCE - 1000 BCE

Tigris & Euphrates rivers
Fertile Crescent (land between the rivers)
Sumerians: plebeians & patricians
Hammurabi: Code of Hammurabi (eye for an eye), (first written set of laws)
cuneiform (first written language)
polytheistic - ziggurats
invention of the wheel, 360 degrees in a circle, simple calendar, weapons

China

3500 BCE - 1000 BCE

Huang He (Yellow River / "River of Sorrows")
unpredicted overflowing--> destroyed crops, homes, lives
Shang dynasty
used oracle bone to communicate with ancestors
irrigation was used
invented paper
silk from silk worms
compass for sailing
gunpowder for firearms

Egypt

3500 BCE - 1000 BCE

Nile River (starts in central Africa - flows north to Mediterranean)
Hieroglyphics - written language
Polytheistic - believed in after life, mummification, pharaohs were 'gods on earth'
predicted overflowing of the river--> led to creation of the calendar
irrigation canals
medicine

India (Northwestern)

3500 BCE - 1000 BCE

Indus River
Sanskrit - written language
polytheistic
strong central gov't --> grid like cities (Mohenjo Daro & Harappa)
Matriarchal society (female leader)
working plumbing system

Early River Valley Civilizations

3500 BCE - 600 BCE

Middle Eastern region=origins of civilization
common features:
~cities
~writing
~religion
~some form of gov't
~trade
civilizations had little contact with each other, developed separate cultural patterns

Olmecs

1500 BCE - 400 BCE

first civilization in South America
established in Mexico

Mongol Empire

1200 BCE - 1550 CE

Pastoral nomadic group, herders, from central Asia's steppes,clan-based society

Genghis Khan (Temujin) - successfully United Mongol tribes, strong military (arrows on horseback), practiced religious tolerance, conquered/expanded empire, "Submit and live. Resist and die", controlled trade routes, tribute system, died in 1227, divided empire amongst his four sons

YUAN DYNASTY - China, Song-->Yuan, centralized gov't, regular tax payment system, foreigners wemployed in bureaucracy, civil service exam abandoned

ILKHANATES - Middle East, Hulegu defeated Abbasid Caliphate, employed local bureaucrats, converted to Islam in 1295, allowed local rulers to control regions as long as they paid tax revenue & maintained order, supported trade, defeated by Mamluks (slave dynasty in Egypt) in 1260, stopped expanding westward after defeat

THE GOLDEN HORDE - Russia, Batu, kept local rulers intact, heavy taxes on peasants, supported trade

Pax Mongolia - Mongol Peace, ruled/united two continents, allowed safe trade/contact between different cultures, used Silk Road & paper currency

Mongol decline - tried to expand empire to Japan, defeated by nature (typhoon winds), overspending, inflation in different parts of the empire, decentralized gov't, rivalry among successors of the Khan

Classical China

1100 BCE - 220 CE

Zhou, Qin, Han dynasty

ZHOU DYNASTY:
Confucianism - filial piety, five relationships, rule by example, 'know your place', predominant philosophy, Analects, civil service exams
Mandate of heaven

WARRING STATES (475-221 BCE): period of warring states and disorder, no central gov't

QIN DYNASTY (221 - 206 BCE):
Legalism - Han Feizi, authoritarian state, harsh rule
Shi Huangdi - 'First Emperor', used Legalism, centralized power, began construction of Great Wall, censored Confucian writings, standardized law.currency.weights.measures

HAN DYNASTY (206 BCE - 220 CE):
Liu Bang - formed new dynasty after civil disorder brings down Qin dynasty
Wu ti - most famous Han ruler, supported Confucianism, promoted peace
invaded/expanded to Vietnam & Korea
women were to be obedient
innovations - iron metallurgy (superior weapons, increased food supply), paper, silkworms
Daoism - Laozi, harmony with nature, gov't isn't important, Dao (the way), yin & yang, balance

*Silk Road, 1st century

Classical Greece

800 BCE - 355 BCE

Depended on trade (caravan trade w Persia, naval trade through Mediterranean Sea, Persian gulf, and Arabian Sea)

Polis - city states (Athens, Sparta), result of mountainous geography, indepent, strong loyalties

Athens - direct democracy, participation of citizens (free, landowning, Greece-born males), theater (comedies/tragedies), traded for grain, philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)

Sparta - Military lifestyle, boys trained from age of 7, girls received physical education to promote birth of strong children, wwomen could own land, no luxuries

Persian War (500-470 BCE) - Greeks resented Persian oppressive rule
Victory @ Marathon by Athenians --> Athen's Golden Age
Victory @ Salamis by Athenian navy
Victory @ Plataea by Spartan army
Delian League - alliance of Greeks against Persia, Athens served as leader, caused resentment in other parts of Greece, led to internal conflict led to Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian war (431-404) - Athens & Sparta, weakened Greece
Macedonia - King Phillip II took over Greece, Alexander the Great (Phillip's son) took over Persia & northwest regions of India, left behind a Hellenistic culture (Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian)

Classical Persia

550 BCE

Small kingdoms in 1000 BCE
formed form weakened Assyrian & Babylonian empires

Cyrus - king/founder, began to conquer neighboring kingdoms, expanded empire from Indus river to Anatolia, honored local customs & religions (tolerance)

Darius - king (522 BCE) divided empire into 20 provinces (called satrapies) w each local culture, built Persepolis (in modern day Iran), established a tax-collecting system, built the Royal Road

Qanat - underground canal system, built to collect/distribute water

Royal Road - road system, communication and trade

Persian Wars - rebellious Greeks led to war, Persians defeated @ Marathon, defeated @ Plataea

West African Kingdoms

500 BCE - 1350 CE

Ghana, Mali, Songhay

GHANA (500-1200 CE) - west Africa, increase in trans-Saharan trade led to growth in power & influence, became commercial state, controlled trade & taxes, 900 CE kings converted to Islam, improved relationships w Muslim merchants, mix of animism and Islam, declined & attacked by Berbers & other tribal groups, fell to West African Kingdom Mali

MALI (1235-1400 CE) - West Africa, salt & gold trade along the trans-Saharan trade route continued to increase, controlled & taxed all trade, Sundiata (epic poem that tells of how the first Mali emperor came to power)

Mansa Musa (1312-1337) - famous Mali emperor, Muslim, pilgrimage to Mecca, built libraries, Islamic schools, & mosques

Timbuktu - capital of Mali, cultural/intellectual center

Fall of Kingdoms - local provinces began to assert independence & broke away from empires

Classical India

332 BCE - 550 CE

Mauryan & Gupta empire
MAURYAN EMPIRE (332 - 185 BCE):
Chandragupta Maurya - first ruler, feared assassination (food testers, body guards, slept in different rooms every night), strong central gov't
Ashoka the Great - Chandragupta's grandson, expanded empire, religious conversion to Buddhism after battle of Kalinga, religiously tolerant, rock edicts (law codes)
economic crisis after death of Ashoka --> fall of Mauryan empire

GUPTA EMPIRE (320 CE):
Chandra Gupta - founder or empire
smaller than Mauryan
highly decentralized gov't
focused on science and mathematics
revival of Hinduism
Medicine (healing plants, plastic surgery), astronomy (solar calendar, earth is round), mathematics (pi, decimal system, concept of zero)
Huns invade in 450 CE

Hinduism & Buddhism - main religions in India, extremely influential in gov't (caste system in Hinduism)
Hinduism - caste system, reincarnation, karma & dharma, achieve moksha (release from the cycle of reincarnation)
Buddhism - Siddhartha Gautama in 6th century BCE, no caste system, self control, Eightfold Path, achieve nirvana

Christianity in Africa

1 CE

Egypt & Ethiopia remained Christian while northern Africa converted to Islam

Ethiopia - evolved into a kingdom w strong Christian beliefs, developed unique style of art/architecture

Egypt - Coptic Christians

Christians were allowed to worship freely, unique artistic expression of Christianity emerged

Crusades

1095 CE - 1204 CE

Series of Christian holy wars, determined to seize the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from Muslims, Pope Urban II encouraged people to fight for the Holy Land in return for a place in heaven, beginning of the end of feudalism

Christians captured the Holy Land, Muslims retook it, crusaders conquered Constantinople, weakened Byzantine Empire

crusaders failed to capture Jerusalem, encouraged trade with Muslim merchants, introduced Europe to foreign goods