Chronological Development of State-Level Societies

Mesopotamia

Chalcolithic Period - Increased Urbanization, Emergence of Temples, Copper Use.

6,500 bc - 4,200 bc

Ubiad Culture - Social Complexity First Seen with Eridu being the Largest Site.

5,900 bc - 4,200 bc

Uruk Culture - Copper Casting, Plow Agriculture. Writing: Stamp Seals.

4,200 bc - 3,000 bc

Bronze Age - Appearance of Palaces, Bronze Technology, Irrigation Systems.

3,300 bc - 1,200 bc

Sumerian Culture - Constructed Ziggurat Temple at Ur at Approx. 2,300 BC

3100 bc - 2334 bc

Akkadian Culture - Ruler Sargon Conquered the Sumerians. Naram-Sin Was His Son.

2,334 bc - 2,230 bc

Babylonian Culture - Hammurabai: King of Babylon and Conquered Uruk.

2004 bc - 1595 bc

Hittite Culture - Sea Traders, 8 Written Languages, Capitol City: Boghazkoy,

1650 bc - 1200 bc

Iron Age - Sea Peoples Plunder Cities and Take Advantage of Early Iron Age.

1200 bc - 550 bc

Phoenician Culture - Reestablished Old Trade Routes, New Sailing Technology.

1000 bc - 700 bc

Assyrian Culture - Built Roads and Domes at Capitol (Ninevah 645 BC).

911 bc - 612 bc

Neo-Babylonian Culture - Conquered All of Southern Meso. from Assyrians.

612 bc - 539 bc

Egyptian Culture

Pre-Dynastic Period - Menes Conquered Lower Egypt and Founded Memphis.

4500 bc - 2920 bc

Early Dynastic Period - Increase in Hieroglyphs - War Depicted.

2950 bc - 2580 bc

Old Kingdom - Large Pyramids Built at Giza by Khufu, Kheper, and Khafre.

2580 bc - 2134 bc

First Intermediate Period - 100 years of political instability, Thebes Built.

2134 bc - 2040 bc

Middle Kingdom - Dynasties 11-13, Capitol Moved from Memphis to Thebes.

2040 bc - 1640 bc

Middle Intermediate Period - Hyksos Move Capitol Back to Memphis.

1640 bc - 1550 bc

New Kingdom - Dynasties 18-20, Akhenaton (1350 bc) Changed Egypt to Monotheism.

1550 bc - 1070 bc

Third Intermediate Period - More Self-Sufficient, Trade Route Breakdown.

1070 bc - 730 bc

Late Period - Dynasties 25-31, Nubian Kings Rule and Reestablish Old Religion.

730 bc - 332 bc

Mediterranean

Minoan Culture - Founded on the Island of Crete, Best Documented at Knossos.

3,200 bc - 1,400 bc

Pre-Palatial Period - Grain Cultivation, Ore Mined for Tools and Ornaments.

3,200 bc - 2,100 bc

Old Palace Period - Linear A Writing, Accounting Records.

2,100 bc - 1,700 bc

New Palace Period - No Evidence of Warfare, Mycenaeans Take Over at 1,400 BC.

1,700 bc - 1,400 bc

Mycenaean Culture - Took Over After Minoan Demise Due to Volcanos and Tsunami.

1,600 bc - 1,050 bc

Indus Valley/Harappan Culture

Early Indus Period - Near Identical Cities (e.g. Rahman Dehri and Kot Diji).

3500 bc - 2600 bc

Harappan Period - More Standardization, pottery, jewelry; Settlement Hierarchies

2600 bc - 1900 bc

Chinese Culture

Xia Dynasty - Developed out of Longshan Culture, A Major City: Deng Fung.

2000 bc - 1500 bc

Shang Dynasty - Founded by Tang who Erected a City Called Po. 30 Kings.

1750 bc - 1027 bc

Zhou Dynasty - Conquered Shang, Move Capitol Further East to Luoyang, More War.

1100 bc - 221 bc

Lowland Mesoamerica

Olmec Culture - Best Known for Artwork (Were-Jaguars and Large Basalt Heads).

1,500 bc - 500 bc

Maya Culture - Cuello Site: Earliest Evidence of Mayans.

1,000 bc - 1,520 ad

Pre-Classic Period - Nakbe Site: One of the Largest Early Sites, Causeways.

1000 bc - 200 ad

Classic Period - Elaborate Writing System on Stone Slabs Called Stelae.

200 ad - 900 ad

Post-Classic Period - Maya Collapse between AD 800-1,000.

900 ad - 1520 ad

Highland Mesoamerica

Monte Alban Culture - 20 Temples, Many Depictions of Warfare, Ball Court.

800 bc - 700 ad

Teotihuacan Culture-Took Control Via Military Campaign-600 Pyramids-500 Workshop

200 bc - 750 ad

Toltec Culture - Temples, Pyramids, and Ballcourts in 1,200 AD When Empire Fell.

650 ad - 1200 ad

Aztec Culture - Empire Reached its Height During Ahuitzotl's Reign in 1486–1502.

1200 ad - 1521 ad

South America

Initial Period - The Cumbe Mayo Aqueduct was Built c. 1,000 BC.

1800 bc - 900 bc

Early Horizon - Chavin de Huantar Site (1500BC) Shows Elaborate Iconography.

900 bc - 200 bc

Moche Culture - Warriors went to war to specifically take captives.

200 bc - 700 ad

Early Intermediate Period - Period of the Moche Culture.

200 ad - 600 ad

Middle Horizon - Monumental Buildings such as Tiwanaku. Influenced Peruvians.

600 ad - 1000 ad

Tiwanaku Culture - Much Use of Copper Technologies and Trade from Lake Shores.

600 ad - 1000 ad

Wari Culture - Sate-Controlled Food Supplies, Roads, and Labor.

600 ad - 1000 ad

Late Intermediate Period - Included Sican Culture (peaked between AD 900-1,100).

700 ad - 1460 ad

Chimu Culture - Inca ruler Tupac Inca Yupanqui conquered Chimú around 1470 AD.

1100 ad - 1460 ad

Inca Culture - Largest Empire in Pre-Columbian America. Known for Machu Picchu.

1438 ad - 1534 ad

Late Horizon - Period of Inca Domination and Rule.

1476 ad - 1534 ad