The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars between Napoleon's French Empire and opposing coalitions led by Great Britain. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies. French power rose quickly as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe but collapsed rapidly. Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo, and all France's gains were taken away by the victors.
As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814. He implemented a wide array of liberal reforms across Europe, including the abolition of feudalism and the spread of religious toleration. One of the greatest commanders in history.
The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic empire, and maintain the peace between the great powers. The second goal was to prevent political revolutions, such as the French Revolution, and maintain the status quo.
It ended the series of wars that had convulsed Europe, and involved many other regions of the world. It also ended the French First Empire and the political and military career of Napoleon Bonaparte, one of the greatest commanders and statesmen in history. It ushered in almost half a century of international peace in Europe.
Marx and Engels predicted the eventual triumph of the working class over the middle class of a classless society in which wealth would be equally distributed. They showed that capitalism must give way to socialism – the abolition of classes based on property ownership. (McKay 341)
In his work, Mill attempts to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty. He emphasizes the importance of individuality. Mill criticized the errors of past attempts to defend individuality. (McKay 339)
The Industrial Revolution took place from the 18th to 19th centuries and was a period during which societies in Europe became industrial and urban.
Goethe's ideas on evolution would frame the question that Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, leading to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current. Goethe was also a cultural force, who argued that the organic nature of the land molded the people and their customs. He argued that laws could not be created by pure rationalism, since geography and history shaped habits and patterns.
Michael Faraday is a British physicist and chemist known for his discoveries of electromagnetic induction and of the laws of electrolysis. His biggest breakthrough in electricity was his invention of the electric motor.
French artist Delacroix uses a female figure representing liberty and reason in this work. In 1830, France was convulsed by revolutionary upheaval and in the painting the female figure is in the thick of the Parisian street fight leading a crowd of revolutionaries toward the realization of France's national destiny. (McKay 348)
Chadwick spent his life in pursuit of social and sanitary reform. He believed in human rationality and the concept of human progress. He also believed that poverty was the consequence of individual moral failings. The only measure of a policy's worth was its utility, the degree to which it improved society as a whole. He states, "The annual loss of life from filth and bad ventilation are greater than the loss from death or wounds in any wars" (McKay 354).
Considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology, Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution.
The Napoleonic Code is the French civil code, established under Napoleon in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified. It was the first modern legal code to be fully adopted and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars. (McKay 303)
An explicitly working-class started a political movement known as Chartism. The movement was based on "The People's Charter," a list of six demands petitioned to Parliament. (McKay 350)
A pioneering sociological study. Accounts the conditions in Manchester's working-class neighborhoods while he was overseeing his family's cotton textile interests in the city. Engels describes life in an industrial city as "everything which here arouses horror and indignation is of recent origin, belongs to the industrial epoch" (McKay 321).