Timeline of Arabs' Perspective

The Arabs in the Middle East were the center of many events regarding numerous countries and were of often caught in the middle of many conflicts, violence, protests etc. Many important topics concerning Arabs included oil, wars, Israel, terrorism and Arab spring. Numerous changes have taken place from the beginning of this timeline to the current period.

Important Events

Russia and Britain invades Iran

1912

In order to assure "stability" and security

Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France

1916

This was an agreement between Britian and France to carve up Arab Provinces of the Empire between themselves

Britain promised Hussein for independent Arab State

1917

Britain promised Hussein, ruler of Mecca, that an independent Arab state will be formed in return for overthrowing the Ottoman Empire (which the Arabs did but Britain did not hold their end of the deal)

Turkey Established as a country

1923

Signed agreement between SOCAL and Saudi Arabia

1933

Due to Saudis' aspirations of increasing wealth and reducing poverty, they signed a six year agreement with Standard Oil of California which permitted SOCAL to explore Saudia Arabia for oil. Kuwait also did the same thing.

Israel established as a recognized country and Arab countries invade

1948

Israel became established with the help of the US and formally became a country however, many Arab nations refused to recognize it. Countries such as Egypt and Jordan invaded Israel. As a result, ceasefire lines became the borders of Israel.

Kingdoms overthrown

1950 - 1960

Nationalist militaries overthrew kingdoms in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Libya

Egypt's Nasser became prominent figure and became Egypt's leader

1952

Nasser, a former army colonel, became the leader of Egypt and was known as the leader of the Arab world and supported pan-Arabism and condemned Israel

Six Day War

1967

Conflict between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. Israel decisively won the conflict and would lead to the next round of fighting.

Egypt and Syria attacked Israel (October War)

1973

After Sadat became the leader of Egypt in 1970, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973 on Yom Kippur in order to regain Sinai Peninsula and initially was successful before driven back by Israel and lost.

Oil Embargo

1973

Saud, Saudi Arabian King, started an oil embargo in protest of US support of Israel. Oil prices skyrocketed.

Oil Embargo called off

1974

US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger negotiated the end of the conflict between Israel and Egypt and Syria and left out the Soviet Union which ultimately lead to the end of the embargo.

Lebanon Civil War

1975 - 1990

Civil erupted in Lebanon. Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 to root out PLO

Egypt's recognition of Israel via Camp David Accords

1978

Egypt agreed to recognize Israel in exchange for Israel's withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and both Egypt and Israel received money from the US. Sadat was later assassinated for his actions.

Khomeni takes control of Iran

1979

Khomeni takes control of Iran after Pahlavi left due to increasing violence. Khomeni purged Westurn culture and viewed the US as an enemy. US embassy staff were held hostages as a result

Iran-Iraq War

1980 - 1988

Iraq's Saddam Hussein wanted to take over Iran and stop the spread of Iran's Islamist revolution. US later supported Iraq in 1986 but also gave supplies to Iran in hopes of releasing hostages which partially worked. This ended in a stalemate with not victors

Iraq invades Kuwait

1990

Hussein invaded Kuwait as he believed the oil in Kuwait was his.

Persian Gulf War

1991

US and allies sent in to prevent Iraq from taking over Kuwait and was successful. This angered extremists such as Bin Laden as they believed they were weak in the US's perspective

9/11 Attacks

2001

Terrorist attacks led by Bin Laden in America was the biggest factor that brought the Middle East in to the world spotlight and would encounter more conflicts as part of the war on terroism

Invasion of Iraq

2003

The US invaded Iraq as part of the response to 9/11 and declared that Iraq had wmd (false evidence. This would lead to an increase of insurgency as hatred began to form

Protests in Iran

2004

Protests in Iran for reform

Fear of Iran

2009

Iran admitted it has a secret uranium enrichment plant in 2009. UN reported that Iran had a nuclear progam that could have a military aspect. Iran's president, Ahmadinejad, strongly defended Iran and was hostile toward Israel.

Arab Spring

2010

Massive protests against authoritarian governments

Results of Arab Spring

2011

Mubarak steps down in Egypt due to protests. Saleh stepped down in Yemen. Bahrain protests put down. Saudi Arabia increased benefits for unemployed, raised salaries for goverment workers and increased civil rights especially for women. Syria, however, is still currently in a civil between Assad's forces and protestors