Chapter 10 - "How Should We then Live"



1813 - 1883

Preceded Beethoven. Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theater director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas.

Claude Debussy

1862 - 1918

French Shift began with him. He opened the for to fragmentation music and influenced many composers since.

Wassily Kandisky

1874 - 1946

An abstract Expressionist painter who wrote an article titled "About the Question of Form" (1912) saying that the old harmony had been lost, and there are only two possibilities remained. (1) Extreme naturalism (2) Extreme abstraction.

Pablo Picasso

1881 - 1973

Brought together the fragmentation of Cezanne along with Guaguin's concept of the noble savage. He painted "Les Deniusekkes d'Avignon" (1906-1907) with that concept. This painting also marked the birth of modern art.

Marcel Duchamp

1887 - 1969

The man who had the most understanding of the absurdity of all things. He then carried the concept of fragmentation in a painting which human disappeared completely, titled "Nude Descending a Staircase" (1912)

Hans Arp

1887 - 1966

An Alsatian sculptor qho wrote a poem which appeared in the final issue of the magazine "De Stijl" (The Style)

T. S. Elliot

1888 - 1965

Introduction in poetry began with his poetry "The Waste Land" (1922) which matched the fragmented message to a fragmented form of poetry.

Jay Grout


Speaks of Shoenberg's and Berg's subjects matter in the modern world in "A History of Western Music"

Sir Archibald Russel


A British designer for the Concorde airliner. Believed that his beautiful designs are all related to the laws of nature.

Edmund Leach


A Reith Lecturer and a well-known anthropology teacher at Cambridge University. There are two views of evolution in the book "The New York Review of Books" (1966). (1) Either all men came from the starting place, or (2) either there were different starting place and time from pre-human biological forms.

Jackson Pollock

1912 - 1956

His paintings were a product of chance, and proved that the universe is not a random universe; it has order.

David Douglas Duncan


Summed up picasso's work through his opinion in the book "Picasso's Picassos" (1961)

Leonard Bernstein


Said that Beethoven is a "new artist - the artist as priest and prophet"