German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer. He wrote several critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism.
1875 - 1965
German—and later French—theologian, organist, philosopher, physician, and medical missionary in Africa, also known for his interpretive life of Jesus.
The Quest for the Historical Jesus (1906)
1883 - 1969
German existentialist. Had a great impact on the thought and the life forms which have followed the avenue of existential thought.
1886 - 1965
German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and theologian.
The Courage To Be (1952)
Dynamics of Faith (1957)
1889 - 1976
German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the "question of Being"
1894 - 1963
English writer and a prominent member of the Huxley family.
Brave New World (1932)
The Doors of Perception (1956)
Heaven and Hell (1956)
Humanist Frame (1961)
1901 - 1976
French novelist, art theorist and Minister for Cultural Affairs.
The Voices of Silence (1953)
An Introduction to Metaphysics (1953)
Essays in Metaphysics (1953)
1904 - 1989
Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres, Spain. Focused on the theme of "surrealism".
1905 - 1980
French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism.
1913 - 1960
French Nobel Prize winning author, journalist, and philosopher. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism.
Wrote the Algerian Manifesto (1960)
10 - Modern Art, Music, Literature, and Films
1737 - 1794
An English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788
1798 - 1857
A French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism.
1813 - 1883
a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas
1820 - 1903
An English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era
1830 - 1903
A Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism
1834 - 1917
A French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance
1839 - 1906
A French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century
1840 - 1926
A founder of French Impressionist painting
Pierre Auguste Renoir
1841 - 1903
A French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style
1848 - 1903
A leading French Post-Impressionist artist who was not well appreciated until after his death
Vincent Van Gogh
1853 - 1890
A post-Impressionist painter of Dutch origin whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art
1860 - 1911
A late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation
1862 - 1918
A French composer. Along with Maurice Ravel, he was one of the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music, though he himself intensely disliked the term when applied to his compositions
1866 - 1944
An influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa
1872 - 1944
A Dutch painter. He was an important contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group
1874 - 1951
An Austrian composer and painter, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School
- Alban Berg (1885-1935)
- Anton Webern (1883-1945)
- John Cage (1912-)
1875 - 1946
An American writer of novels, poetry and plays that eschewed the narrative, linear, and temporal conventions of 19th-century literature, and a fervent collector of Modernist art
1881 - 1973
A Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France
Les Demoiselles d' Avignon (1907)
1887 - 1966
A German-French, or Alsatian, sculptor, painter, poet and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper
1887 - 1969
A French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Dadaism and conceptual art, although not directly associated with Dada groups
Nude Descending a Staircase (1912)
T. S. Eliot
1888 - 1965
An essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic and "one of the twentieth century's major poets."
1891 - 1976
A Hungarian polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy
Sir Archibald Russel
1905 - 1995
a British aerospace engineer who worked most of his career at the Bristol Aeroplane Company, before becoming managing director of the Filton Division when Bristol merged into British Aircraft Corporation in 1960
1910 - 1989
A British social anthropologist of whom it has been said:
"It is no exaggeration to say that in sheer versatility, originality, and range of writing he was and still is difficult to match among the anthropologists of the English speaking world"
1912 - 1956
An influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was well known for his unique style of drip painting
1918 - 1990
An American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the United States of America to receive worldwide acclaim
11 - Our Society
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
1841 - 1935
An American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States January–February 1930
1870 - 1964
A distinguished American legal scholar and educator. He was Dean of Harvard Law School from 1916 to 1936. The Journal of Legal Studies has identified Pound as one of the most cited legal scholars of the 20th century
Frederick Moore Vinson
1890 - 1953
Served the United States in all three branches of government and was the most prominent member of the Vinson political family
Alfred Charles Kinsey
1894 - 1956
An American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University
1895 - 1973
A German philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the 'Frankfurt School' of social research
1898 - 1979
A German American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory.
1903 - 1969
A German sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of society
1915 - 1973
A British-born philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience
1918 - 2008
A Russian novelist, historian, and critic of Soviet totalitarianism. He helped to raise global awareness of the gulag and the Soviet Union's forced labour camp system
1919 - 2011
An American sociologist, writer, editor, and professor emeritus at Harvard University, best known for his contributions to the study of post-industrialism
1920 - 1996
An American psychologist and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs.
1926 - 1997
An American poet and one of the leading figures of both the Beat Generation of the 1950s and the counterculture that soon would follow
A German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. He is perhaps best known for his theories on communicative rationality and the public sphere
An American man of letters. Perhaps best known as a poet, he is also an essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. He has been described as the "poet laureate of Deep Ecology"
1942 - 1970
An American musician, singer, and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century