History F: 1658-1667

THE PROTECTORATE OF RICHARD CROMWELL

September 1658 - May 1659

Death of Oliver Cromwell

September 1658

Under Humble Petition & Advice 1657, Protectorate took on a monarchical tone, and Royalists were v. pessimistic about the prospects of a restoration.

Richard Cromwell proclaimed Lord Protector

3 September 1658

First meeting of Third Protectorate Parliament

27 January 1659

Meetings of the General Council of Officers begin

2 April 1659

Petition of army officers

6 April 1659

Petition to the Protector for payment of the army's wage arrears

Parliament forbids meetings of army officers

18 April 1659

Supported by Parliament

Soldiers gather in London

21 April 1659

Parliament's discussions of measures to control the army prompts rendezvous of soldiers in and around London, forcing the Protector to dissolve parliament the following day

Meetings of the General Council of Officers decide to recall the Rump Parliament

23 April 1659 - 6 May 1659

Richard Cromwell retires into private life

RULE BY THE RUMP

May - October 1659

Rump appoints Charles Fleetwood as C-in-C of the army

12 May 1659

Subsequently decrees that MPs should confirm the appts of all army officers

Booth's Rising in Cheshire crushed by Lambert's army at Northwich

31 July 1659 - 16 August 1659

Petition to parliament from army officers in protest

5 October 1659

Expulsion from parliament of protest supporters

12 October 1659

Expulsions including Lambert and Desborough. Army placed under a commission that included civilian republicans

FORCIBLE END OF THE RUMP by army, establishment of a Committee of Safety

13 October 1659

ARMY RULE

Committee of Safety

Committee of Safety begins meetings

26 October 1659

General George Monck, the leader of the army in Scotland, refuses to support it and declares his support for the Rump

Comm. of Safety discusses new constitutions

November 1659

Lambert leaves London with an army against Monck

November 1659

Declarations in favour of the Rump

3 December 1659 - 13 December 1659

Portsmouth garrison, navy, Irish army

General Council of Officers dissolves itself and abandons power to the Rump

23 December 1659

RULE BY THE RUMP #2

Rump begins sitting again

26 December 1659

Rump purges army of its enemies

2 January 1660

Monck and his army cross the border into England

Purge included Fleetwood, Desborough and Lambert

Monck's arrival in London

2 February 1660

Caused weeks of nationwide demonstrations and petitions in favour of either a 'free' parliament or readmission of MPs secluded by Pride's Purge in 1648

Monck allows the re-admission of MPs excluded in Pride's Purge, 1648

21 February 1660

Rump dissolves itself in favour of new elections

16 March 1660

FROM REPUBLIC TO MONARCHY

First meeting of the Convention Parliament

25 April 1660

Declaration of Breda

1 May 1660

Promises: a "free and general pardon", liberty for tender consciences, all issues of land to be settled by Parliament.

Paved the way for Charles II's return

Charles II returns to London

29 May 1660

RESTORATION SETTLEMENT (domestic policy)

Poll Tax raised

1660

Raised with the aim of paying off the army

MODERATION OF 1660 UNDERMINED FIFTH MONARCHIST VENNER'S UPRISING

Act of indemnity and Oblivion

1660

All but 33 individuals involved in the regicide of Charles I were pardoned (only those who officiated his execution were not)

Charles II takes over

29 May 1660

Invited by Parliament

Arrived back "amid enormous public rejoicing, buoyed up by a surge of public goodwill" (John Miller)

Licencing Act

1661

Imposes censorship of press and theological publications

Fifth Monarchist uprising led by Thomas Venner

January 1661

Royalist Cavalier House of Commons elected

1661

Passed reforming legislation (although leaving some elements of Long Parliament decisions, such as not reviving ship money and the Star Chamber

Militia Act

1661

Vested control of the armed forces (both army and navy) to the Crown; Parliament agreed to an annual revenue of £1,200,000

Corporation Act

1661

Prevents dissenters holding local office

Act against Tumultuous Petitioning

1661

Limited the number of people who could accompany a petition to Parliament or the King - preventing riots and disruption

Quaker Act

1662

Imposes fines on transportation and imprisoned leading Quakers

Hearth Tax introduced

1662

Repeal of 1642 exclusion of Bishops from Lords

1662

Act of Uniformity

1662

Makes New Prayer Book compulsory in services - ministers must sign their assent to it or lose their jobs. Some 2000 clergy (nearly 1/5 of the church) forced to resign.

Issue, and subsequent cancellation, of the Declaration of Indulgence

1662 - 1663

An attempt to increase religious tolerance of Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics

Reintroduced in 1672

Second Navigation Act

1663

Conventicle Act

1664

Makes religious meetings of over 5 people illegal without the use of the New Prayer Book, and imposes heavy penalties for attending non-Anglican church services

Triennial Act

1664

Parliament to meet every 3 years, but to mechanism for the King to comply. Overruled the 1641 Act in favour of a weaker one.

Five Mile Act

1665

Prevents any preacher who doesn't accept the church coming within 5 miles of the city

Plague of London

1665

Saw 70,000 die in London alone

Great Fire of London

1666

Yorkshire Rising

July 1667

RESTORATION SETTLEMENT (foreign policy)

Alliance to Portugal; Charles' marriage to Catherine of Braganza

1661

Led to a strengthened alliance and a dowry including Bombay and Tangier

Dunkirk sold to France

1662

For £400,000

Naval campaign

1665

started with a victory against the Dutch

Second Anglo-Dutch War

1665 - 1667

Dutch success; left England particularly vulnerable especially after the plague/great fire

64 Dutch Warships invade Quayside; Royal Charles taken captive

27 June 1667

5 June: De Ruyter lands at Kent
27 June: invasion under De Ruyter command. Royal Charles (ship that brought Charles back to England in 1660) taken captive. Major psychological impact on England.