September 1658 - May 1659
Under Humble Petition & Advice 1657, Protectorate took on a monarchical tone, and Royalists were v. pessimistic about the prospects of a restoration.
Petition to the Protector for payment of the army's wage arrears
Supported by Parliament
Parliament's discussions of measures to control the army prompts rendezvous of soldiers in and around London, forcing the Protector to dissolve parliament the following day
Richard Cromwell retires into private life
May - October 1659
Subsequently decrees that MPs should confirm the appts of all army officers
Expulsions including Lambert and Desborough. Army placed under a commission that included civilian republicans
Committee of Safety
General George Monck, the leader of the army in Scotland, refuses to support it and declares his support for the Rump
Portsmouth garrison, navy, Irish army
Monck and his army cross the border into England
Purge included Fleetwood, Desborough and Lambert
Caused weeks of nationwide demonstrations and petitions in favour of either a 'free' parliament or readmission of MPs secluded by Pride's Purge in 1648
Promises: a "free and general pardon", liberty for tender consciences, all issues of land to be settled by Parliament.
Paved the way for Charles II's return
Raised with the aim of paying off the army
MODERATION OF 1660 UNDERMINED FIFTH MONARCHIST VENNER'S UPRISING
All but 33 individuals involved in the regicide of Charles I were pardoned (only those who officiated his execution were not)
Invited by Parliament
Arrived back "amid enormous public rejoicing, buoyed up by a surge of public goodwill" (John Miller)
Imposes censorship of press and theological publications
Passed reforming legislation (although leaving some elements of Long Parliament decisions, such as not reviving ship money and the Star Chamber
Vested control of the armed forces (both army and navy) to the Crown; Parliament agreed to an annual revenue of £1,200,000
Prevents dissenters holding local office
Limited the number of people who could accompany a petition to Parliament or the King - preventing riots and disruption
Imposes fines on transportation and imprisoned leading Quakers
Makes New Prayer Book compulsory in services - ministers must sign their assent to it or lose their jobs. Some 2000 clergy (nearly 1/5 of the church) forced to resign.
An attempt to increase religious tolerance of Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics
Reintroduced in 1672
Makes religious meetings of over 5 people illegal without the use of the New Prayer Book, and imposes heavy penalties for attending non-Anglican church services
Parliament to meet every 3 years, but to mechanism for the King to comply. Overruled the 1641 Act in favour of a weaker one.
Prevents any preacher who doesn't accept the church coming within 5 miles of the city
Saw 70,000 die in London alone
Led to a strengthened alliance and a dowry including Bombay and Tangier
started with a victory against the Dutch
Dutch success; left England particularly vulnerable especially after the plague/great fire
5 June: De Ruyter lands at Kent
27 June: invasion under De Ruyter command. Royal Charles (ship that brought Charles back to England in 1660) taken captive. Major psychological impact on England.