System of society and culture: The classical age (1000 BCE - 900 BCE)

classical Greek and Persian civilization (600 BCE - 200 BCE)

political structure: POLIS(city-states), which developed culture that people are loyal to their city-state and identified themselves as a community.The state is ruled by a king who was advised by a council of elders. The king did not have large power and live a normal life as the others. later nobility took charge of the king's power. Their government is an oligarchy (寡头政治- 少数人控制政府, 官员是贵族选举的). more and more people in ATHENS got rich through trade and they started to challenge the oligarchy, leading to democracy.
Origin of democracy - all farmers were soldiers in Greek and everyone is free. male citizens joined the aristocracy's affairs in their leisure time and therefore relationship between people in Greek is relatively equal.

Life of Zoroaster

1000 BCE

Greek cultural achievement in classical Hellenic age

612 BCE - 339 BCE

Greek Polytheism
Greek focused on humanism which is based on the idea of rationalism that order and beauty can be conceived not only by god by man himself. The gods in Greek meth all took human forms and have human characteristics. Each polis tended to favored one god. Mayor religious festival united Greek was held at Olympia in honor of Zeus and at Delphi in honor of Apollo.

Greek Drama
The play was in outdoor theater and people listened to the play as a method of instruction as well as entertainment.The tragedies were centered on heroes and comedies poked fun at political officers and prominent citizens.
three greatest tragedy writers: AESCHYLUS, SOPHOCLES, EURIPIDES
comedy writer: ARISTOPHANES
poet: Sappho (her poems are mostly about love)

Greek people believed reason, intellect are the true source of knowledge. They quested for an understanding of the universe and an explanation of its principle. THALES OF MILETUS, father of philosophy,created a school called materialism. PYTHAGORAS, a mathematician, believed numerical relationship formed the basic principle of the universe. HIPPOCRATES separate science from philosophy and invented medicine. the Sophists traveled around Greek to teach and agreed human was the proper subject to study.

Socrates (470-399 BC)- he is famous for his argument and challenge of ides through logically constructed questioning. His was blamed to cause the lost of the Peloponnesian war since he questioned the common opinion of the politicians. He then was condemned to death.
Plato (427-347), a student of Socrates, believed in the primacy of a world of immaterial forms that later provide the intellectual framework of Christian philosophy.
Aristotle (384-322 BC), Plato's student, advocated a life of moderation, or the "Golden Mean" to achieve happiness. He argued states should serve all citizens and when it was subjected to special interests, it became perverted.
Citizens in Greek are encouraged to participate in debate using logic. knowledge is virtue for Greek.

reasons and science also supported the Greek achievement in the art. The concept of beauty involved balance and correct proportion. Temple architectures illustrated the two belief systems of Greek - gods and rationalism.
famous temple- Parthenon
greatest Greek sculptor- Phidias
historian written history from information his got and pointed to reader information that he cannot verify: Herodotus
The period from 461 BCE to 429 BCE was called the GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE or the AGE OF PERICLES as during his leadership, Athens became a showplace for Greek achievement.

Greek society
The everyday life of Greek was simple and stressed moderation beside the richness of the public life.Most Greek earned living on farming and slavery was commonplace. slaves are from war and are protected under law. They worked as household slave, teacher or work in mine, but they can buy their freedom. Women lived a scheduled life and were secondary in a basically patriarchal society. Courtesans(高等妓女) probably lived the freest of all Athenian women.

Classical Hellenic age

612 BCE - 339 BCE

this age began with the process of democratization in Athens when an aristocrat, Draco, codified the law for the Athenian polis.This law is applied to all citizens. SOLON, archon (执政官)in 594 BCE empowered the commoners.

Athenian Democracy - direct democracy: all male citizen over 19 can join the assembly.
Council of 500- chosen by lot, served as legislature for 1 year.

Executive branch has a commander-in-chief and nine general elected annually by Assembly. other officers were chosen by lot.
Judicial branch: Juries were chosen by lot.
ostracism: dangerous individual can be banished from citizenry.

Sparta- five selected officials called ephors (检察官) ruled the state and Sparta aimed to build strong army.
People can only make living by farming. Boy joined army at age of 7 and girls underwent physical training to be healthy mother.

Classical Persia (Achaemenids)

550 BCE - 331 BCE

The Persians were part of the Aryan, or Indo-Europeans. They fell under the spell of the more sophisticated culture of Mesopotamia, but they went to create the greatest empire of history and encompassed many cultures and people.

in 550 BCE, CYRUS II THE GREAT create the Achaemenids dynasty, giving Persia an identity and asserting a God -given right to rule. Since Persia contained many people in different cultures, he retained a large measure of local autonomy. He also broke the barriers between different cultures.
DARIUS, CYRUS's successor, reorganized the country into 30 province and appointed a governor(SATRAP)m a military commander, and separate inspectors to each province.He established a comprehensive law, a stable currency, and a postal system. He also built the ROYAL ROAD, which run from Persia to Turkey.
By the end of 513 BCE, Persia ruled Egypt, all of Southwest Asia, and western India = the largest empire the world had yet known.

The Persia religion was an ethnic religion Zoroastrianism . it sought no convert and tolerated other forms of religion. This religion is polytheism, but there was a chief God, AHURAMAZDA, the creator. MITHRA,the sun god. According to the prophet, life is a constant battleground between two opposite forces and it is individual's responsible to choose. Zoroastrianism survived the fall of Persia and continue to influence religious thought in the age of Jesus.

The Persia capital was Persepolis built by Darius and the constructions there borrowed many skills and thoughts from Greek.

Persian Wars (Greece and Persia)

499 BCE - 479 BCE

A Greek city-state rose in revolt of Persia's master of Southwest Asia and other city-state came to their defense. Persia then attacked Athens, the richest city-state. In the BATTLE OF MARATHON (490 B.C.E.), Persia landed an army but Athens won. Ten years later, lead by Persia king XERXES, Athens was burned to the ground, but in the BATTLE OF SALAMIS BAY, Athens won Persian navy. Sparta and Athens joined forces and defeated Persia at the BATTLE OF PLATAEA in 479 BCE.

Peloponnesian Wars (Athens and Sparta)

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The Persian War led to a naval alliance of Greek city-state led by Athens called the DELIAN LEAGUE (478 BCE). but soon Athens started to ask for tributes from other states and use league's resources for own advances. Sparta, as the leader of the PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE,became alarmed by the Athenian interests. This led to the PELOPONNESIAN WAR between Athens's alliance and Sparta's alliance. Sparta won at last. The disunity of Greek gave PHILIP OF MACEDON the chance to invade and became the master of Greek city-states in 338 BCE.

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

A man named Philip became the king of MACEDONIA after destroyed the joint army of Thebes and Athens. His son was the famous Alexander the Great who built the a new era of cultural synthesis called HELLENISTIC after conquering the Persian Empire, India, Egypt and a vase among of land. He spread Hellenism (Greek culture) in his country.

Alexander burned Persepolis and built the city of Alexandria. he died in 323 BC, at the age of 33.

Classical Hellenistic Age

323 BCE - 30 BCE

Upon Alexander's death, his mighty empire broke up among his warring generals. One general called Ptolemy built the first of the Egyptian dynasty of PTOLEMIES.Other generals established separate states and continued expanding, but Greek culture blanketed the whole area and united it culturally, if not politically.

The new political development led to a diffusion if wealth and a great expansion of trade with East Africa, Arabia, India, and Central Asia. A common language emerged as KOINE, a dialect of Greek, which helped to facilitate trade and government.

Trade transformed Greek polis into a cosmopolis (国际都市) of different people and activities. Cities became economic and cultural centers but assemblies and council were cancelled since the king cannot afford to give freedom. Greeks represented the elite class of citizens because they were needed to run their kingdoms. This spurred many to assimilate Greek culture in order to rise politically and socially. Greek culture diffused all around the area.

the original Greek cult and polytheistic traditions seemed sterile since its festival and ritual stick strictly to the home land Greek like Olympus. So MYSTERY CULTS like Serapies and Isis became popular. Serapis combine element of Egypt god and Greek gods. All the mystery religion claimed to save fate and promised good afterlife.

Hellenistic Philosophy
Three philosophies in particular was popular- Cynicism, Epicureanism and Stoicism. Cynics believed that happiness was possible only by living according to nature and foregoing luxuries. This philosophy was appealing particular to lower class. Epicureans believed that the principle good of human life is pleasure. They ignored politics and issues. Stoics taught people to participate in political activities and world affairs but they ought not try to change the order of things. They don't bother to achieve anything but to live a virtuous life. Stoic has big impact on the Roman Empire.

Hellenistic Science, Math and Technology
Babylonian provided the raw material for the foundation of astronomy introduced by Thales. Astronomer ARISTARCHUS propounded the HELIOCENTRIC theory (日心说). Euclid completed a valuable textbook that combined all the existing knowledge about geometry. Another great thinker Archimedes (阿基米德)was a great inventor and mathematician. Eratosthenes calculated the Earth circumference of the Earth and it was close to the actual length. In medicine, Herophilus studied human body and had many valuable discoveries.Many inventions were applied to military.


300 BCE - 224 CE

the Parthians were Indo-European nomads entered Persia when Alexander conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire. They conquered a lot land of Persia in the second century BCE. but they adopted many Hellenistic traditions and made Greek the official language .They adpoted Zoroastrianism and tried to replicate the satrapies bureaucracy system of Achaemenid.The frequent war with Roman empire made it fall to a new Persia power, the Sassanians in 224 CE.

Classical Roman civilization (500 BC- 500 CE)

From the classical Greece and the Roman civilization emerged the three core values of Western culture- individualism, justice and Christian love. Individualism came form Greece, legal tradition developed from Roman Republic and Christianity made its distinctive mark in Roman Empire.

Founding of Rome

753 BCE

Around 1000 BCE, the ETRUSCANS moved down the Italy peninsula. A group of Greek escaping Doric invasion planted settlement in southern Italy and gave the peninsula the name Italy. Latin was the people living between Etruscans and Greek. Rome was built by two brothers, ROMULUS and REMUS. Rome and Latium was conquered by Etruscan and a king ruled Rome around 509 BCE. Around 509 BCE, a large landlord revolution form a new government, a REPUBLIC. Unlike Greece, a republic was a unified state instead of a series of city-states which was able to withstand invasion and internal violence.


539 BCE

in 539 BCE, Persia defeated Babylonia and freed the Jews and they were allowed to go back to Palestine. There they recorded the core of Judaism - TORAH.
RABBIS- interpreted Judaism laws
TALMUD- the second great source of Judaism
Diaspora- dispersion of Jews people outside Palestine.
Gentile- non-jews

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 44 BCE

The early republic form of government was based on the division of people into two classes:
1.The wealthy land-owning class called patricians, 10% of the population
2. The small farmers, artisans, and shopkeepers called plebeians.

head- two consuls elected by patricians class that can command the army, did religious function, and acted as judge to veto each other.

300-member patrician Senate: adviser body of consuls and served for life. They proposed laws that were voted upon by the Assembly of Centuries.

Assembly of Centuries- a body made up of all male citizens as organised for military purpose in unites of 100.

tribunes- the representatives elected by the plebeian special assembly called the assembly of Tribes.

assembly of Tribe- they passed resolution that tribunes later presented to Senate for rectification.

Gradually the political difference between patricians and plebeians disappeared around 376 BCE and plebieans can be 287 BCE, patricians can attend assembly of tribes.

Roman laws
a law code called TWELVE TABLES advanced democratization. it was normal for PRAETORS (judges) to announce new law and banished outdated laws. JUS GENTIUM was the coalescing of Roman and foreign laws. They have the idea of justice over laws of a particular country, giving rise to the notion of JUS NATURALE, or universal law. The Roman legal system included:
1. a common standard of justice creating a state of law, not men
2. judgement based on evidence
3 .an enumeration of rights including those of men, women, slaves and property.

4. respect for law as reflected in the Roman symbol for justice
5. the merging of Roman civil law with the law of foreigners.

Roman Legions
Every able-bodied male is required to serve in military and they used the legion system. Roman military was with superior arms, discipline, training, and steadfast loyalty and soon became the master of the Mediterranean world.

Roman Religion
Roman worshiped many gods and those gods was in human forms like Greek. Chief priest, or PONTIFEX MAXIMUS, prayed to gods. before gods, all were equal and dutiful.

Punic Wars (Rome and Carthage)

264 BCE - 140 BCE

布匿战争(Bella punica,或译布匿克战争)是在古罗马和古迦太基(Carthage)之间的三次战争,名字来自当时罗马对迦太基的称呼Punici(布匿库斯)。



Consequence- the wining brought great wealth to Romans. Meanwhile, Roman fell in love with Greek culture. Political corruption became a science, luxury a goal.
Two reformers TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, and his brother Gaius tried to reform the economy of the country but failed due to the opposition of the wealth senate.
Marius was the first general who successfully challenged the Senate and with a loyal military force, he override the senate and be a consult for 4 terms. The senate then supported another general Sulla who took the government and later ruled like a dictator.

Roman conquest of Greece

133 BCE

Julius Caesar

102 BCE - 44 BCE

Rome's major power contest was between POMPEY, who was supported by Senate, and JULIUS CAESAR, who was supported by people. In 59 BCE,Pompey, Caesar, and a wealthy business men Crassus, agreed to share power and formed the First Triumvirate. when Crassus died, Pompey and the senate distrusted Caesar and Caesar defied the Senate and brought the republic to an end. Pompey flee and got killed. Caesar then became the dictator and did a lot of reform. 'IDES OF MARCH", Caser was assassinated by a band of BRUTUS. Rome was at war again. Octavian, grandnephew of Caesar ended the chaos and gave the title to Augustus.

Roman Empire

44 BCE - 476 CE

Roman literature and science
Three great writers - Virgil (THE AENEID), Horace, and Livy. they not only gave good literature work, but also Latin, a language that was the base of the romance language of Europe.Some important writing was in the field of science, but Roman recapitulate Greek work rather than provide an innovative pure science.

Roman Architecture
barrel vault- is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.
cross vault- 两个拱成直角相互支撑

growth of cities
the roman empire was marked by growth and development of cities besides those of the capitals, linked by system of roads that facilitated trade and communication throughout the empire. Roman cities was self-governing but they were vulnerable to outside invasions, plague and insecure trade routes.

Roman society
Rome provided impressive public facilitates for its citizens: reliable drinking water, irrigation and drainage system. Tradesmen were organized into collegia (协会) for social and religious purpose rather than for workers'benefit. There was powerful law that protected the citizens. although not fully codified by 600 CE, the law was know as JUSTINIAN'S CODE.

Imperial law
Roman law is for all citizens and there are also laocal laws issue by local government. Rome gave a great deal of political autonomy to local government. The jus civil, or civil laws, which applied to the Romans only and the jus gentium, or law of nation, formed the basis of general notion of law, the jus naturale.

Roman trade and the Silk Road
Many roads and protected harbors were built for the trade in the classical world. Amber Road was developed in Rome for the great demand. Roman's expansion to the east and China's expansion to the west made this two civilization came in tough with each other. In the second century, 汉武帝took the important step of opening the Silk Road to Parthia(Persia/Iran) and later Han sent an ambassador, Kan Ying to the Roman empire by sea. More than goods passed along this road. Technology, ideas, religion and art also spread around.

Roman economy
Rome depended on the system of agriculture that required the land to lie follow in alternative years. Land transport was expansive. The commercial class was weak in both social and capital esteem. The wealth consuming rather than the wealth-creating nature of the empire, and it relied heavily on trade, made it vulnerable.
Emperor Diocletian (284 - 305) tried to divided the country in two with two appointed Caesars and reestablish the authority by claiming the divine status. The creation of new bureaucracy adding more demand on the diminishing treasury.


44 bce

Christianity rose in the time when Rome transit form republic to empire and it grew up both within the empire and within the state of Judea. The political autonomy was shattered when PONTIUS PILATE was appointed prefect so Rome has direct control over the state. Among Jews, two movement began to spread, one is ZEALOT- Judea override Roman, one is APOCALYPTIC- believe the coming of a Messiah. In the convoluted and multicultural world of Rome, people needed moral anchor that promote harmony.

Christian Sectarianism
Gnostic Christians- accept old Greek and Roman religion traditions and sought escape from material world. They believed in a divine Christ, not Jesus in person.
Arian Christian- God by definition is uncreated and unchangable, Christ should not have been a coequal.
Nestorian Christian- believe in humanness of Jesus.

Roman Catholic
in 325 BCE, church produced Nicene Creed- Christ was the "eternally begotten son of the Father". The move of the capital to east and the German invasion to the west Rome made Pope , not the emperor, the supreme leader of the west.
Catholic claimed that one world of belief united in the person of the pope.
Christian was against Greco-roman culture at first but later they assimilated into the church organization and art. it is evidence in the work of SAINT AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO.

Life of Jesus

7 BCE - 30 CE

The story of Jesus made rituals like Baptist and the Eucharist( celebration of the last supper) developed. Through the travel and work of Paul of Tarsus, who spread Jesus's word, Hebrew religion was turned into a religion for all believers.

Why Christianity is popular
1. it embrace both male and female
2. it was less exclusive than the mystery religions
3. it appealed to common people and the poor in its communal celebration
4. it gave a cause to many in an indifferent world of materialism and pleasure.
5. its literature, like the EPISTLE( Paul's letter to various Christian community) and the Gospel inspired artistic expression.

priest- meets the local need of parishioners
bishops- head communities of believers
Apostle Saint Peter- founder of the church
Pope- successor of founder of church
Canon law- Christian church law

Christian martyrs
Christian was illegal in Rome since Augustus incorporated the god-king idea to strengthen his rule. However, the persecution and martyrdom made the religion more popular.

Pax Romana

27 CE - 180 CE

Referred to the period from Augustus to MARCUS AURELIUS because it was a time relative political peace when no major wars threatened the security of the empire. Peace encouraged trade and wealth. A period of disorder was followed after the death of Marcus.

Sassanian Persian Empire

240 CE - 651 CE

Founding of Constantinople

330 CE

The popularity of Christianity forced Emperor Constantinople to issue the Edict of Milan in 313 CE which made Christianity legal. He then built a new capital in East called Constantinople. This city combined Christianity and Hellenistic classicism.
Famous building- Cathedral of the Hagia Sophia

Division of Western and Eastern Roman Empire

395 CE

many Germans migrated into Rome in the third century and one group, the VISIGOTHS, rebelled aginast Rome in 378 CE and finally in 410 CE, their leader ALARIC sacked Roman. In476 CE, German general ODOACER seized power in Rome and west Rome collapsed. East rome contonued for another 1000 years.

Classical Chinese imperial civilization (500 BC- 500 CE)

Zhou gave China its philosophy of statecraft, and the Qin united China and gave it its name, the Han gave it its distinctly classical character by instituitionalizing the civil service bureaucracy in the preindustrial world.

Zhou Dynasty

1027 BCE - 256 BCE

agriculture:well-field system 井田制
political system- use regular, educated, and salaried officials called shi士 to help administrate kindom
I Ching - used to learn will of gods and predict future


551 BCE - 479 BCE

-connect huamn to nature
-assert lesser ruling 无为而治

one can be both Daosim and Confucian


551 BCE

Han Fei Zi & Li Si
- authoritarian since human nature is evil
- laws should replace mortality
- Education is unnecessary, work and produce is important


551 BCE - 479 BCE

Analects- 论语
fillial piety- respect for one's parents and elders 孝心
1.teh ruler should be just and ruled loyal
2. the father should be loving and the son respectful
3. the husband should be righteous and the wife obedience
4. the older brother should be gentle and the young humble
5. the older friend should be considerate, and the younger deferent.
Gentlement were made , not born, a man of poor birth could become gentlement without aristocratic birth.

Mengzi(孟子)- through self-perfection society can be ordered. This idea first appeared in the Record of Rites (礼记)
Mandate of Heaven- rules have the divine right to govern.
people can rise up if a ruler governed badly (Zhou used this excuse to overthrow Shang)
Dynasty cycle- Chinese dynasty repeated the cycle going through the stages of warring states, unification, barabrian invasions and conquest, absorption into Chinese system, and finally a creation of a new dynasty based on the Mandate of heaven.

Warring state period

402 BCE - 332 BCE

Sun Zi-The art of war
used of coin money
Iron technology blossomed

Qin Dynasty

256 BCE - 206 BCE

Shi huangdi used legalism to rule the country.
-He divided the countries into provinces and use governors who was appointed by the emperor and unable to claim heredity to rule the provinces.
- he standarized the Chinese scripts, weghts, measure, and axle system
- he built the Great Wall to prevent invasion of Xiongnu

Han Dynasty

207 BCE - 210 CE

Liu Bang built the country and he is called Han Gaozu.
Han endured the largest and most effective civil service bureacuracy.
MADARINS are the scholars chosen by exams. they not only ran the states, but also provide their creative ideas for education that endured these days.
WUDI 汉武帝 required the domains of vassals be divided among heirs and not passed on perpetuity.
Han replaced Legalism with Cnfucianism and has the imperial university in the capital Changan in the last century BCE.

Han class system
madarins- peasants- artisans- merchants- military

Foreign policy
Liu Bang presented Xiongnu with presents
and arranged intermarriage

Wudi used military force instaed

Art, science, and technology
ridage-and-furrow planting system- seed planted in ridge nex along the furrow that collected water.
CAI lUN- invention of paper
Sima Qian- record of the grand history
Ban Qao- china's first women historian
Chang heng- earth is round
Ching Chi- Treaties on fevers
Changan was a picture of mathemetically planned disciline, symbolic of the symmetry of the cosmos.

The silk road
The silk road connects many powerful countires by the time. In the west was Rome, in the east was Han China: in between were the Kushan Empire of northen India and Afgannistan, and the Parthians who ruled Persia and Mesopotamia.

Sea trade
sea trade made use of the Monsoon winds and it is more stable than road trade because road trade is more vulnerable to political disruption, slower and more expensive (ex.used of oxen)

Age of dicontinuity and Buddhism

220 - 589

The period between the fall of Han and the rise of Sui is called the age of dicontinuity.
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms 三国演义- a novel that tells th elegendary stories in this period.

One of the cultural diffusion in those days was religion. Buddhism penetrated China with the fall of the Han empire.Buddhism offered spiritual solace and cultural cohension in the time of political fragmentation. Buddhism often competed with Daoism. B offered a clearer doctrine of personal salvation and Dao provided healing the connections with nature. Daoism continued to win.

Classical Indian civilizaton (300 BCE - 500 CE)

Two great empire roses during the classical period in India - the Mauryan and the Gupta. By 572 BCE, Achaemeid Persians controlled the Inuds Valley region. a strong Aryan kingdom MAGADAHA formed alliance to rebuffed Persia but the alliance was fragile. In addition, the born of Buddha also bring conflict between Buddahism and Hinduism . Alexander later invaded the area in 327 BCE. Later, a number of Greek rulers controlled part of the India and spread Greek culture to India. The social fabric of India was based on caste system and was a measure of both political and social order. the two empires rose due to overland and sea trade with China, Rome and Persia.

Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

563 BCE - 483 BCE

buddha was Kshatriya, a class most likely to resent teh priests. he is tird of the endless cycle of life, and thus concluded that happiness in this life could be found not in changing one's karama but in changing one's thoughts and attitudes.
1. life is suffering
2. suffering is caused by desire
3. one can be released from desire by following the EIGHTFOLD PATH
4. a state of grace when desire is extinguished (Nirvana) can be reached, releasing one from karma.

EIGHTFOLD PATH (center on "self-knowledge", a willingness to be freed of suffering and desire)
1. Right view

2. Right intention

3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood

6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness

8. Right concentration

like Christiantity, Eightfold path can be followed by anyone.
upon Budda's death, Buddaism split into two sects- THERAVADA and MAHAYANA. THERAVAD is more consevative and limited in the teaching of Buddha. MAHAYANA recognizes beliefs could evlove and go beyond Buddha's teaching. it emphasizes comapssion and many many ways to slavation and thus is more popular.
Bodhisattva- In Theravāda Buddhism opinion, the term "bodhisatta" was used by the Buddha to refer to himself both in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life, prior to his enlightenment, in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation.According to some Mahāyāna sources a bodhisattva is someone on the path to full Buddhahood. Others speak of bodhisattvas renouncing Buddhahood.

Sangha - refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of ordained Buddhist monks or nuns.

Nirvana- liberation from the cycle of rebirth. In the Buddhist context nirvana refers to the imperturbable stillness of mind after the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion have been finally extinguished.

mudra - A mudrā is a spiritual gesture and an energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Buddism


540 BCE - 500 CE

reform of Hinduism as a response to the pessimism of an endless cycle of death and a protest against Braham ritual and their priviledges.
The founder of Jainism was MAHAVIRA
Jainism believed universe is composed of souls and matter. A person must rid off matter and rise to the top of the universe as soul t oachieve enteral oneness with Brahma.They believed in no harm to life and encouraged vegetarians. They asserted nonviolence. It has influenced from Emerson ro Gandhi and Martin Luther King.

Mauryan Empire

322 BCE - 232 BCE

CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA defeated the Greek and made himself king by the Gange river. He bulit a capital PATALIPUTRA. MEGASTHENES,a greek ambassador found the splendor of India was greater than Greek.
Chandragupta adopted the Persian style of adminstration by dividing the empire into provinces governed by someone linked to the royal family. Cheif minister KAUTILYA wrote ARTHASHASTRA (similar to The Art of War). The king sent spies to supervise the officials, making Brahmans reduced their power.

Ashoka- Chandragupta's grandson. Chandragupta's rule was CENTRALIZED DESPOTISM, and Ashoka's was BENEVOLENT PATERNALISM. he converted to Buddaism after his bloody struggle for the throne a dn for the control of the eastren Indian state KALINGA.he built mnay STUPA (舍利子). he did not force conversion but rather built shrines for other religions. Many benefited from Ashoka's regime under Buddhism rules. But Brahman resented as political advisors and military family wanted their control back on small states. the country was torn apart by royal family after Ashoka's death.


300 BCE - 500 CE

The origin of it can be found in Aryan religion traditon, or Brahmanism. They ebdrockof the belief is division of society into caste. All gods are aspect of Brahma.
religious idea: people must follow a prescribed path. They must obtain DHARMA, the moral duties of caste. Dharma determined KARMA. Those who obtained dharma could be reincarnated in a higher caste next life. When the moral law is observed, the reincarnation will end. MOKSHA is the released from the wheel of life and unity with Brahma.
Vishnu- the preserver of creation
Shiva- the destoryer
promote non-violence toward living creatures

Kushan invasion

100 BCE

after the collapse of Mauryan Empire, Bactrian Greeks invade the region under KING DEMETRIUS and brought Greek culture to India between 300 to 180 BC. Kushan entered India around 100 BC and were gradually absorbed into Indian society and became the Kshatriya (worrier) caste. The Kushan beended the India and Greek culture. Under KANISHKA, who converted to Buddhism has a great council of Buddhist monks.

Gupta Empire (Golden Age)

320 CE - 467 CE

The Gupta empire were considered the golden age of India because of its considerable output of literature, art and science.CHANDRA GUPTA I came to power and established the Gupta empire with capital at PATALIPUTRA. Under Chandra's rule, religious tolerance, economic prosperity, and intellitual achievement reached their zenith.

Art, science and technology
famous poets and dramatist- KALIDASA (wrote story that people wrestle with bad fate and end with happy ending)
Many universities were found. Indian numbers (阿拉伯数字-实则产生于印度), decimals, and zero were developed in 3 century CE.
Tech- making of fire iron; develop of plastic surgery; CARAKA, famous doctor who developed doctor ethics code.

Gupta architecture
Two famous forms- stupa;rock-cut temple.
Indian architecture, unlike Christinity and Islam, hugs the ground rather than soaring to the heaven.
Lakshmi- fertility God
Kali- death god
mandalas-designs symbolizing the universe.

Hindu Reform
Meanwhile, Buddhist monks concentrated in monasteries and isolated from urban and villiage life. Hinduism then strees the importance of personal worship and participation. Brehman class started to gain back power and regained the role as GURUS (teachers).
As Hinduism regianed power, it became more consevative. men had high power and women were subjected to men. The tradition of SATI (殉夫) developed. caste system were strongly enforced.

Gupta ended with the invasion of the White Huns og Asia but Huns soon absorbed the Hindu culture.

Classical American and African Civilization (100 CE - 900 CE)

Classical period of America: Urban centers/ Religious creativity/ Advances in scholarships,arts,methods of rule, and social organization/ Wealth based on sophisticated agriculture and trade/ Long-lasting traditions and imprints inspired by trade

Africa: Widespread trade allowed civilizations to diffuse culture far and wide. they developed religius system that were both cosmetic and Christian

Kush and Golden Age of Trade (Northern Africa)

800 BCE - 350 CE

A Nubia state that was a large producer of Iron. The society was ordeed by kings and queen-mothers, laws and traditions, military and elites, a rich musical and architectual tradition, and a written language. The capital was MEROE. Kush declined due to worldwide climate change. COPTIC Christian Church based on MONOPHYSITE SECT(believe Jesus is divine rather than both divine and human) spread into the area later but the Christian religion was eventually conquered by Islam. (located around Egypt)

Aksum (Northern Africa)

400 BCE - 100 CE

It was a center of agriculture, bronze, and ironworking. They benefit from culture exchange with many societies due to its location(located close to Ethiopia).It was influenced by Christianity and Christianity became a deeply ingrained local religion throughout today.

Sudan urban society - Mande (West Africa)

400 BCE - 100 CE

Urban societies like MANDE arose in Sudan (No current day Sudan, but west Africa) while Kush and Askum maintained close connection with Eurasia. JENNE-JENNO was the major hub of a network of commercial center along the Niger river. By 1 century, trade across Saraha linked Sudan to the world.They exported gold.Cities in Sudan tended to be smaller due to agriculture situation. Diverse Mande spoke related language and traditions. The Mande were domesticators of Africa rice and lived in large walled village, combining farming and fishing.Early political structure developed CHIEFTANCY 酋长, combining religiou and secular duties.

The SONINKE people formed the first major Sudanic state of GHANA.The political system of Ghana was known as dual-gender system in which two leaders, a cheif and a queen-mother, lead every village. There were also group of elders serve as advisors. GRIOTS- respected class of oral historians and musicians memorized and recited the deeds of leaders.

Along the Guines coast another kind of society emerged. people there lived in small self-suficient villagesand traded with Sudan. Over time, they absorbed some of the Sudan tradition.

Bantu migration to East and South Africa

100 CE - 700 CE

Bantu people carried many traditions, arts, music, farming and religion that orginated in Sudan with their migration. As they entered new environemnt, they incorporated new influences. Since they worked iron, they could better pushed out other groups. In many area, however, they assimilated.

Austronesian settlement of Madagascar

100 CE - 700 CE

East coast of Africa developed a cosmopolitian society based on maritime trade.The culture there diffused due to the Bantu migration

Teotihuacan (Mexico)

100 CE - 900 CE

When states in Eurasia started civilization, Mesoamerica still rested on agricultural OLMEC who had proceeded them. BY 150 BCE, the OAXACA ZAPOTECANS established a large urban senter near modern Mexico city at TEOTIHUACAN. TEOTIHUACAN was the comeercial, religious adnd political center.
some historian seen Teotihuacan as a precursor of the MAYA civilization. The city continued to florish during the Maya period until hordes from the southwest ruined the city.They had great pyramids that bigger than Egypt's to worship god. A TIME OF TROUBLE (800 - 1000 CE) followed. One of the state, the TOLTEC confederation, absorbed the Teotihuacan culture.

barrios- 贫民窟

Moche (Peru)

200 CE - 700 CE

Moche valley developed near today's Chile and was established in the Andean world. It has two large cities called TIHUANACO and HUARI. The culture emerged in Andean society seemed to have had certain common characteristics. One is VERTICALITY- the social and political objective of families and communities was to find economic niches at different altitudes. Another is the idea of kinship units, or AYLLUS, based on descent from a common mythical ancestor. Ayllus share the same customs,dialect and dress. they have their independent units. Cooperative relationship was based on RECIPROCITY 互惠互利. people in moche developed a writing system and can use metals and textiles.
Tihuanaco and Huari fell to CHIMU and later Chimu was conquered by Incas by 1465

Maya (Central America)

300 CE - 900 CE

The Maya culture had different languages and art styles, but they share a common statecraft, a written language, calendar and a math system. Maya seemed to derived from the word ZAMNA, the Maya culture god. Maya record constant warfare and the deed of leader such as PACAL OF PALENQUE. The leader had considerable civic and religious power.

RITUAL BALL GAMES - a religious ball game

Agricultural system
In order to support a large population, Maya people not only have irrigation and swamp drainage, they used a RIDGED FIELD SYSTEM- raised field were built above low-lying, seasonally flooded lands bordering rivers. They also used MILPA- cutting down patches of forest, burned the wood and planted maize in the resulting ash.
Cities had great noble palace and pyramids. The pyramids used a CORBELED ARCH (突拱).evidence of trade and artisanship was rare but there is considerable evidence that Maya carried on extensive long-distance evidence. Maya products were found over a large area.

Math and science
The system of hieroglyphic writing adds phonograms to a pictographic system. The hieroglyphic were written in CODICES (books) made of bark paper and deerskin or were incribed on steles. They measured time based on the oberservation of VENUS and developed a calendar with 365.25 divided into 18 months of 20 days.In math, they used a system based on 20 and the concept of 0. The Maya, like the Chinese, had the idea of dualism- good-bad - which emphasis unity rather than conflict.

Decline of Maya
The declien of Maya is connected to the general cataclysmic decline in the whole Mesoamerican area between 700 CE to 900 CE.The center of the culture moved from TIKAL to YUCATAN.
Guess 1: agricultural exhuasion
Guess 2: inceased population led to war and heavy tax led to revolt
Guess 3: Epidemic disease
The TOLTEC overtook Maya by 1000 CE.

steles- 石碑石柱