Roman literature and science
Three great writers - Virgil (THE AENEID), Horace, and Livy. they not only gave good literature work, but also Latin, a language that was the base of the romance language of Europe.Some important writing was in the field of science, but Roman recapitulate Greek work rather than provide an innovative pure science.
barrel vault- is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.
cross vault- 两个拱成直角相互支撑
growth of cities
the roman empire was marked by growth and development of cities besides those of the capitals, linked by system of roads that facilitated trade and communication throughout the empire. Roman cities was self-governing but they were vulnerable to outside invasions, plague and insecure trade routes.
Rome provided impressive public facilitates for its citizens: reliable drinking water, irrigation and drainage system. Tradesmen were organized into collegia (协会) for social and religious purpose rather than for workers'benefit. There was powerful law that protected the citizens. although not fully codified by 600 CE, the law was know as JUSTINIAN'S CODE.
Roman law is for all citizens and there are also laocal laws issue by local government. Rome gave a great deal of political autonomy to local government. The jus civil, or civil laws, which applied to the Romans only and the jus gentium, or law of nation, formed the basis of general notion of law, the jus naturale.
Roman trade and the Silk Road
Many roads and protected harbors were built for the trade in the classical world. Amber Road was developed in Rome for the great demand. Roman's expansion to the east and China's expansion to the west made this two civilization came in tough with each other. In the second century, 汉武帝took the important step of opening the Silk Road to Parthia(Persia/Iran) and later Han sent an ambassador, Kan Ying to the Roman empire by sea. More than goods passed along this road. Technology, ideas, religion and art also spread around.
Rome depended on the system of agriculture that required the land to lie follow in alternative years. Land transport was expansive. The commercial class was weak in both social and capital esteem. The wealth consuming rather than the wealth-creating nature of the empire, and it relied heavily on trade, made it vulnerable.
Emperor Diocletian (284 - 305) tried to divided the country in two with two appointed Caesars and reestablish the authority by claiming the divine status. The creation of new bureaucracy adding more demand on the diminishing treasury.