Europe

Main

start

2000 BCE

Ancient Greece

800 BCE - 146 BCE

Roman Kingdom

753 BCE - 509 BCE

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476

Split Between Western and Eastern

286 CE

Constantine unites Empire

330 CE

Empire Splits Again

395 CE

Fall of Western Roman Empire

476 CE

Carolingian Empire

800 - 888

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

Golden Horde

1240 - 1502

Habsburg Empire

1526 - 1804

Elizabethan Age (England)

1558 - 1603

end

2500

Developments

Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180

Christianity

20 CE

came from Paganism

Edict of Milan

313

Christianity becomes official religion on Roman Empire

391 CE

Hagia Sofia

535

Magna Carta

1215

Hanseatic League

1241

Renaissance

1300 - 1600

Humanism, the printing press, and a new style of art appeared.

Black Death hits Europe

1347

Medici family rises

1450

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Established a line that runs through the western Atlantic Ocean for Spain and Portugal.

Vasco da Gama rounds Cape of Good Hope

1497

95 Theses by Martin Luther

1517

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Edict of Worms

1521

Luther was outlawed and said to be a heretic by Catholic authorities.

Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation)

1545 - 1648

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Scientific revolution

1550 - 1750

Peace of Augsburg

1555

It intended to bring peace between Protestants and Catholics but was unsuccessful.

Edict of Nantes (France)

1598

Established by Henry IV, created tolerance between the constantly fighting Catholics and Huguenots.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

It affirmed the independence of German states in which Prussia became the strongest. It greatly weakened the Holy Roman Empire.

The Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

The Index

1650

A list of banned heretical works banned by the Catholic Church that remained until 1822.

Stuart Restoration (England)

1660 - 1668

The Parliament created a limited monarchy by inviting Charles II to the throne.

Habeas Corpus Act

1679

Charles II agrees to an act that protects people from arrest without due process.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Romanticism (Romantic Era)

1800 - 1850

N.E.P. (Russia)

1921 - 1928

A policy created by Lenin. Allowed peasants to own land, sell crops, engage in trade, produce goods, and have a free market. Essentially pushed for a more free-market economy. Abolished by Stalin

Great Depression reaches Europe

1931

People

Julius Caesar

49 BCE - 44 BCE

Octavius (Augustus Caesar)

27 BCE - 14 CE

Diocletian

284 CE - 305 CE

Constantine

306 CE - 337 CE

Justinian

527 - 565

Charlemagne

800 - 814

William the Conqueror

1066 - 1087

Pope Innocent III

1198 - 1216

Thomas Aquinas

1225 - 1274

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

A Portuguese prince who directed voyages that expanded the Portuguese Empire.

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Ivan III

1462 - 1505

Nicholas Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

King Henry VII

1485 - 1509

Created the Church of England after the investiture controversy. His daughter was Elizabeth who was his successor and a Protestant.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

He built an observatory and recorded his observations. Helped to develop the scientific method.

Ivan the Terrible

1547 - 1584

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

He published works on inductive logic. Helped to create the scientific method.

Galileo

1564 - 1642

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

He developed laws on planetary motion which were derived from observation and mathematics.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Wrote about the natural greedy nature of people and that they are prone to warfare. He believed the government should provide peace and stability. He advocated for an all-powerful ruler to achieve this.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

He believed that mankind was innately good and that all men were born equal to each other with certain, unalienable rights. He believed government should secure and guarantee the natural rights given to man. People were justified to revolt.

Sir Issac Newton

1642 - 1727

He invented calculus to help prove the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and others. He developed the law of gravity.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1654

He built the Palace of Versailles and was a patron of the arts. He also revoked the Edict of Nantes which forced many Huguenots to leave France.

Montesquieu

1689 - 1755

There should be a balance/separation of power in the government.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

He espoused religious toleration.

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Men are equal. Society should be organized by the majority. He had profound impacts on revolutionary movements in European colonies and impacted the abolitionist movement.

Vladimir Lenin

1870 - 1924

President Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

He tried to remain neutral in the Great War but eventually declared war.

Adolf Hitler

1933 - 1945

Conflicts

Punic Wars

264 BCE - 146 BCE

1st Punic War

264 BCE - 241 BCE

2nd Punic War

218 BCE - 201 BCE

3rd Punic War

149 BCE - 146 BCE

Visigoths sack Rome

410 CE

The Visigoths turned on the Romans as a result of attacks by Attila and his Huns.

Crusades

1095 - 1291

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Spanish Inquisition Begins

1478

Glorious Revolution (England)

1688 - 1689

James II, the unpopular Catholic king after Charles II, was overthrown by the Parliament. They established William and Mary as protestant rulers.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

A war fought between European nations over who would had the right to succeed Charles II of Spain.

WWI

1914 - 1918

Russian Revolutions

1917

The February Revolutions and October Revolutions. Lenin led the Bolsheviks in the February Revolution against Tsar Nicholas II. The Bolsheviks, supported by workers and soldiers, led the October Revolution against the bourgeois and government (also led by Lenin).

Benito Mussolini

1925 - 1943

World War II

1939 - 1945

German invades Poland

1939

Battle of Britain

1940

German Forces invade USSR

1941

Battle of Stalingrad

1943