came from Paganism
Humanism, the printing press, and a new style of art appeared.
Established a line that runs through the western Atlantic Ocean for Spain and Portugal.
Luther was outlawed and said to be a heretic by Catholic authorities.
It intended to bring peace between Protestants and Catholics but was unsuccessful.
Established by Henry IV, created tolerance between the constantly fighting Catholics and Huguenots.
It affirmed the independence of German states in which Prussia became the strongest. It greatly weakened the Holy Roman Empire.
A list of banned heretical works banned by the Catholic Church that remained until 1822.
The Parliament created a limited monarchy by inviting Charles II to the throne.
Charles II agrees to an act that protects people from arrest without due process.
A policy created by Lenin. Allowed peasants to own land, sell crops, engage in trade, produce goods, and have a free market. Essentially pushed for a more free-market economy. Abolished by Stalin
A Portuguese prince who directed voyages that expanded the Portuguese Empire.
Created the Church of England after the investiture controversy. His daughter was Elizabeth who was his successor and a Protestant.
He built an observatory and recorded his observations. Helped to develop the scientific method.
He published works on inductive logic. Helped to create the scientific method.
He developed laws on planetary motion which were derived from observation and mathematics.
Wrote about the natural greedy nature of people and that they are prone to warfare. He believed the government should provide peace and stability. He advocated for an all-powerful ruler to achieve this.
He believed that mankind was innately good and that all men were born equal to each other with certain, unalienable rights. He believed government should secure and guarantee the natural rights given to man. People were justified to revolt.
He invented calculus to help prove the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and others. He developed the law of gravity.
He built the Palace of Versailles and was a patron of the arts. He also revoked the Edict of Nantes which forced many Huguenots to leave France.
There should be a balance/separation of power in the government.
He espoused religious toleration.
Men are equal. Society should be organized by the majority. He had profound impacts on revolutionary movements in European colonies and impacted the abolitionist movement.
He tried to remain neutral in the Great War but eventually declared war.
The Visigoths turned on the Romans as a result of attacks by Attila and his Huns.
James II, the unpopular Catholic king after Charles II, was overthrown by the Parliament. They established William and Mary as protestant rulers.
A war fought between European nations over who would had the right to succeed Charles II of Spain.
The February Revolutions and October Revolutions. Lenin led the Bolsheviks in the February Revolution against Tsar Nicholas II. The Bolsheviks, supported by workers and soldiers, led the October Revolution against the bourgeois and government (also led by Lenin).