AP European History

Time Periods

The Renaissance

1350 - 1550

period of artistic and cultural achievement in Europe; characterized by secularism, individualism, humanism, and materialism

The Age of Discovery

1415 - 1650

refers to the era's phenomenal advances in geographical knowledge and technology

The Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1780

The Reformation

1517 - 1640

protestation of abuses within Catholic Church; led to a revolution that destroyed religious unity of Europe and established various Protestant denominations or sects

The Enlightenment

1687 - 1799

core tenet was that natural law could be used to examine and understand all aspects of society

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1830

Age of Metternich

1815 - 1848

Age of Reaction; years from the end of the Congress of Vienna to the revolutions of 1848; Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria; pattern of anti-democratic policies that was followed by conservatives

Victorian Era

1837 - 1901

rise of the "cult of domesticity"; glorification of the domestic life

The Cold War

1947 - 1980

The Brezhnev Era

1964 - 1982

USSR leadership under Leonid Brezhnev; strengthened bureaucracy & KGB; invested in a large military buildup, but sought to avoid confrontation with the West

Events

Pope Boniface VIII issues 'Unam Sanctam

1302

stated in uncompromising terms that resistance to the will of the pope was resistance to the will of God

The Babylonian Captivity

1305 - 1378

Popes lived in Avignon; were under considerable control by French monarchy

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

between England and France; leaves both nations crippled

Boccaccio's 'Decameron'

1353

becomes first great prose work of the Renaissance

Golden Bull

1356

established system for electing Holy Roman Emperor

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

2 popes, one in Rome, one in Avignon; ended with Council of Constance's election of Martin V

Gian Galeazzo Visconti

1378

becomes ruler of Milan

John Wycliffe condemned as a heretic

1380

was not burned at the stake

Chaucer's 'The Canterbury Tales'

1390

becomes one of the first works written in the vernacular of England

Council of Constance

1414

ended Great Schism

Henry the Navigator establishes his school of navigation

1415

Pope Martin V

1417

Jan Hus burned at the stake

1418

condemned by the Church as a heretic

Masaccio paints 'The Holy Trinity'

1425

Kempis's 'The Imitation of Christ'

1427

Portuguese explore Azores

1427 - 1431

Donatello's 'David'

1432

Van Eyck's 'The Adoration of the Lamb'

1432

Cosimo de' Medici

1434

establishes Medici dominance in Florence

Brunelleschi finishes Cathedral of Florence

1436

Portuguese establish slave-trade station

1442

in West Africa

Portuguese conquer Cape Verdi, Africa

1445

Gutenburg's printing press

1450

Francesco Sforza

1450

becomes ruler of Milan

Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople

1453

ends the Byzantine Empire

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

English House of York and House of Lancaster fight each other for political control

Louis XI of France

1461

Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand

1469

unites kingdoms of Castile and Aragon

Lorenzo de' Medici

1469

ruler of Florence

Inquisition begins in Spain

1478

introduced to control activity of 'marranos' (Jews who had converted to Christianity)

Botticelli's 'The Birth of Venus'

1480

Ludovico il Moro

1480

ruler of Milan

Bellini's 'St. Francis in Ecstasy'

1485

Henry VII of England

1485

with the end of the War of the Roses; begins the Tudor monarchy; most famous accomplishment was the establishment of the Star Chamber - a court to check aristocratic power

Diaz reaches Cape of Good Hope

1488

Columbus sails for India

1492

Completion of Reconquista

1492

expulsion of Jews from Spain

Spanish reconquer Granada

1492

Line of Demarcation

1493

established by Pope Alexander VI

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

moved Papal Demarcation Line west to give Brazil to Portugal

Savonarola

1494

takes power in Florence

Da Vinci's 'The Last Supper'

1495 - 1498

John Cabot

1497

explores Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New England

Da Gama reaches India by water

1498

Vespucci explores South American coast

1499 - 1500

Bosch's 'Garden of Earthly Delight'

1500

Dürer's 'Self-Portrait'

1500

Cabral reaches Brazil

1500

Michelangelo's 'David'

1501 - 1504

Da Vinci's 'Mona Lisa'

1503 - 1506

Giorgione's 'Tempesta'

1505

Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel

1508 - 1512

Erasmus's 'In Praise of Folly'

1509

Henry VIII of England

1509

Raphael's 'The School of Athens'

1511

De Balboa reaches the Pacific

1513

Machiavelli's 'The Prince'

1513

De Leon discovers Florida

1513

Francis I of France

1515

extended control by establishing 'taille' (direct tax on all land and property); also gained control of French church through Concordat of Bologna - he recognized the supremacy of the Papacy in return for the right to appoint French bishops; also established Catholicism as France's state religion

Erasmus writes Greek and Latin translations of New Testament

1516 - 1519

Thomas More's 'Utopia'

1516

Luther outlines his basic beliefs

1517 - 1520

wrote a series of works outlining his beliefs:
- Salvation is through faith alone.
- Religious authority rests with the Bible, not the pope.
- The Church consists of the entire community of Christian believers.
- All work is sacred and each person should serve God in his or her individual calling.
- Marriage of clergy should be permitted.
- Baptism, Communion, and Extreme Unction are the only sacraments instead of all 7
- Disagreed with doctrine of transubstantiation, believed in consubstantiation
- Secular rulers are the supreme authority in all matters except theological ones.

Luther's Ninety-Five Theses

October 31 1517

posted on door of Wittenberg Castle

Castiglione's 'The Book of the Courtier'

1518

Ferdinand Magellan

1519

sets out to circumnavigate the globe

Ulrich Zwingli's Protestantism

1519

begins his teaching of Protestantism in Switzerland

Luther debates John Eck

1519

debates Eck (a theologian) on the authority of the pope

Cortes conquers the Aztecs

1519

Charles V of HRE

1519

Pope Leo I excommunicates Luther

1521

Diet of Worms

1521

Luther refuses to recant his views to Charles V

Charles V declares Luther an outlaw

1521

at the Diet of Worms

Zwingli's theocracy

1523 - 1525

in Zurich, Switzerland; civil war eventually broke out between Protestants and Catholics

German Peasants' Revolt

1524 - 1525

Da Verrazano explores North American coast

1524

Peasants' rebellion in Germany

1524

partly stirred by Luther's writing; Luther condemns their actions

Henry VIII petitions Pope for a divorce

1527

Henry VIII of England petitions Pope Clement II for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon

HRE Charles V sacks Rome

1527

Diet of Speyer

1529

German Lutheran princes meet to protest imperial decrees against their faith

Zwingli is killed

1531

League of Schmalkalden

1531

formed by German Protestant rulers to defend themselves against the efforts of Charles V to establish Catholicism in Germany

Pizarro conquers Incas

1531 - 1533

Peace of Cappel

1531

ended religious violence in Switzerland, allowed each region to determine its own religion

Henry VIII's marriage is annulled

1533

Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer annuls marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

Cartier voyages to Canada

1534

Act of Supremacy

1534

recognizes Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England

Cartier explores St. Lawrence River

1534 - 1541

The Jesuits

1534

founded by Ignatius of Loyola; recognized and encouraged by Rome to fight spread of Protestantism

Pope Paul III

1534

began the Counter Reformation/Catholic Reformation; supported creation of the Index of Prohibited Books

Calvin's 'Institutes of the Christian Religion'

1536

John Calvin; believed in predestination and unity of church and state

Six Articles

1539

passed by British Parliament reaffirming many sacraments of the Catholic Church

Portuguese land in Japan

1542 - 1543

Copernicus's 'On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres'

1543

suggested sun as center of the universe; heliocentric theory; published posthumously

Vesalius's 'The Structure of the Human Body'

1543

Knox's Calvinism/Presbyterianism in Scotland

1543

John Knox helps to make Calvinism a state religion; is given the name Presbyterianism

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

called by Pope Paul III; reaffirms traditional Catholic doctrines on seven sacraments and the authority of the pope; centerpiece of the Counter Reformation

Edward VI of England

1547

Six Articles repealed

1547

by British Parliament

British Parliament models new state religion

1549

adopts Anglican Mass and 'Book of Common' Prayer

Mary of England

1553

Peace of Augsburg

1555

allows German princes the right to choose the religion of their subjects; no mention of Calvinism

Portuguese establish trade station in China

1557

at Macao on southern coast of China

Cellini's 'Autobiography'

1558 - 1562

Elizabeth I

1558

becomes Queen of England; reigns for 45 years; last Tudor monarch

Act of Uniformity

1559

Under Elizabeth I; established a common prayer book and set the basic ceremonies of the Church

Presbyterianism becomes official religion of Scotland

1560

Thirty-Nine Articles

1563

under Elizabeth I; established the religious doctrine that governed the Church until the English Revolution of the 1640s

William of Orange leads rebellion against Spanish

1568

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24 1572

attacked Huguenots; occurred under Charles IX of France; began the War of the Three Henrys

Montaigne's 'Essays'

1580

William of Orange is assassinated

1584

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

1588

under Philip II; defeated by English under Elizabeth I

Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV of France

1589

begins the Bourbon Dynasty

Henry of Navarre converts to Catholicism

1593

Edict of Nantes

1598

grants religious toleration to Huguenots (French Protestants)

James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England

1603

first Stuart king

Hampton Court Conference

1604

James I of England; provided impetus for King James Version of the Bible

Cervantes's 'Don Quixote'

1605

Bacon's 'The Advancement of Learning'

1605

Kepler's 'On the Motion of Mars

1609

Louis XIII of France

1610

First edition of King James Bible

1611

Church declare's Copernicus's theory false

1616

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

most important and bloodiest of the religious wars; first continental war in which all major European nations were involved; was a struggle between emperors and the states of Germany; the French and the Hapsburgs; the Spanish and the Dutch; as well as efforts by Denmark and Sweden to extend control over the Baltics

TYW Bohemian phase

1618 - 1625

Calvinists demand more freedom from Catholic Hapsburg ruler; Bohemia becomes Catholic by 1635

TYW Battle of White Mountain

1620

HRE Ferdinand II defeats the Bohemians

Bacon's 'Novum Organum'

1620

Cardinal Richelieu

1621

Charles I of England

1625

TYW Danish phase

1625 - 1629

King Christian IV, Protestant leader of Denmark, intervenes to defend Protestants in northern Germany; results in Edict of Restitution

Harvey's 'On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals'

1628

Petition of Right

1628

English Parliament's; eventually signed by Charles I; forbade the king to do the following:
- Levy taxes without Parliament's consent
- Proclaim martial law in peacetime
- Imprison anyone without a specific charge
- Quarter troops in the home of private citizens without their permission

TYW Swedish phase

1629 - 1635

Gustavus Adolphus, Protestant king of Sweden intervenes to support Protestants; results with Edict of Restitution being revoked; southern Germany remains Catholic; Cardinal Richelieu of France provides aid to Sweden as a way to destroy Hapsburg power

Charles I accepts Petition of Right

1629

TYW Luetzen

1632

Gustavus Adolphus, Swedish Protestant king, wins a military victory, but is fatally wounded

Galileo's 'Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems'

1632

provided evidence that reinforced and confirmed theory of Galileo; later placed under house arrest

France enters TYW

1633

TYW Swedish/French phase

1635 - 1648

French want to destroy Hapsburg power; religious issues become secondary to political; results with Peace of Westphalia

Charles I forces new prayer book upon Scottish Presbyterians

1637

Short Parliament

1637

Descartes's 'Discourse on the Method'

1637

wrote in vernacular instead of Latin; stressed deductive reasoning; "cogito ergo sum" "I think therefore I am"

Long Parliament

1640 - 1653

passed laws limiting power of the king

Portugal regains independence

1640

from Spain

Cardinal Mazarin

1642

ECW Phase I

1642 - 1646

Oliver Cromwell emerges as leader; organized New Model Army

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

concerned religious differences and also centered on whether authority or sovereignty rested in England with the monarchy or the Parliament; divided into two phases
- cavaliers or royalists: supported the king (wealthy landowners, Anglican clergy, Catholics)
- roundheads: supported Parliament (middle class, merchants, small nobility, Puritans, Presbyterian Scots)

Louis XIV of France

1643

ECW Phase II

1646 - 1649

victors over Charles quarreled amongst themselves; Charles fled to London; Rump Parliament is established under Cromwell

Peace of Westphalia

1648

ends Thirty Years' War; Spain loses Holland

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

Rump Parliament rule

1648 - 1653

under Cromwell; monarchy abolished and Commonwealth was established; Cromwell eventually expelled the Rump Parliament and took title of Lord Protectorate and established military dictatorship

Charles I is beheaded

1649

Execution of Charles I

1649

Commonwealth & Protectorate

1649 - 1660

England

Hobbes's 'Leviathan'

1651

believed humans in their original state of nature were unhappy; stated that man was quarrelsome, turbulent, and forever locked in a war against all; supported absolute monarch; man enters social contract

Cromwell becomes lord protector

1653

Cromwell dies

1658

Treaty of the Pyrenees

1659

ended French-Spanish war; Spain forced to cede lots of territory to France; marked the end of Spain as a great power

Stuart Restoration

1660 - 1688

Charles II becomes king of England

Restoration of English monarchy

1660

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

1662

becomes Louis XIV of France's chief minister

First Dutch War

1667 - 1668

(War of Devolution)

Second Dutch War

1672 - 1678

Test Act

1673

excluded all Catholics from public office in England

Turks besiege Vienna

1683

Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes

1685

Newton's 'Principia Mathematica'

1687

integrated ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo into one system of mathematical laws to explain the orderly manner in which the planets revolved around the sun; thesis of the law of universal gravitation

War of the League of Augsburg

1688 - 1697

The Glorious Revolution

1688

England; bloodless overthrow of the previous monarch; brought in William and Mary
- ended divine right theory in England
- re-established supremacy of Parliament over monarch
- passed Bill of Rights
- passed Toleration Act
- English rulers had to be Anglican
- laid foundation for constitutional monarchy

Bill of Rights

1689

passed by English Parliament

Peter the Great of Russia

1689

Toleration Act

1689

granted freedom of worship to Protestants who were dissenters from Church of England, such as Baptists and Congregationalists, but not to Catholics or Quakers

Locke's 'Second Treatise of Government'

1690

written as a philosophical justification for the Glorious Revolution; supported the Social Contract; argued man is born basically good and has certain natural rights of life, liberty, and property; people enter into social contract to create government with limited powers; idea of the consent of the governed

Locke's 'Essay Concerning Human Understanding'

1690

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Russia v. Sweden

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Tull invents seed drill

1701

agricultural revolution

Peter the Great establishes St. Petersburg

1703

Newcomen invents steam engine

1712

Thomas Newcomen; to pump water out of coal mines

Peace of Utrecht

1713

forbade the union of France and Spain, stating they could not be rule by the same monarch

Louis XIV of France dies

1715

War of the Polish Succession

1733 - 1735

Kay invents flying shuttle

1733

John Kay; Industrial Revolution

Voltaire's 'Letters on the English'

1734

Linnaeus's 'Systema Naturae'

1735

War of the Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Montesquieu's 'The Spirit of Laws'

1748

supported separation of powers; admired British system

Townshend begins crop rotation

1750

Charles "Turnip" Townshend"; agricultural revolution; helped conserve soil fertility

Diderot's 'Encyclopedia' 1st ed.

1751

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

Prussia allies with Great Britain, Austria with France

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Voltaire's 'Candide'

1759

Rousseau's 'Emile'

1762

Rousseau's 'The Social Contract'

1762

Beccaria's 'Essay on Crimes and Punishments'

1764

Hargreaves invents spinning jenny

1764

James Hargreaves

Russo-Turkish War

1769 - 1774

Watt's steam engine

1769

James Watt

Arkwright invents water frame

1771

Sir Richard Arkwright

First Partition of Poland

1772

Louis XVI of France

1774

American Revolution begins

1775

Smith's 'Wealth of Nations'

1776

Adam Smith; laissez-faire: government shouldn't get involved with national economy; should act as an agency to ensure that everyone is following laws of society; "invisible hand" of supply and demand will promote the best interest of society

Crompton invents spinning mule

1779

Samuel Crompton

Bentham's 'Principles of Morals and Legislation'

1781

Jeremy Bentham; utilitarianism; the greatest happiness for the greatest number

Treaty of Paris

1783

confirms independence of American 13 colonies

Cartwright invents power loom

1785

Edmund Cartwright

Charter of the Nobility

1785

under Catherine the Great

Lavoisier's 'Elementary Treatise on Chemistry'

1789

Estates General meets

May 5 1789

first time in 175 years

Third Estate becomes the National Assembly

June 17 1789

Tennis Court Oath

June 20 1789

members of third estate meet on tennis court at Versailles and promise not to disband until they write a new constitution

Louis XVI recognizes National Assembly

June 27 1789

The Great Fear

July 1789 - August 1789

Storming of the Bastille

July 14 1789

National Assembly ends feudalism in France

August 4 1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27 1789

approved by National Assembly

Women's march on Versailles

October 5 1789

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 12 1790

Constitution of 1791

1791

establishes constitutional monarchy in France

Legislative Assembly convenes

1791 - 1792

abolishes slavery and grants religious toleration to Protestants and Jews

Legislative Assembly convenes

1791

French royal family caught and arrested

June 1791

Declaration of Pillnitz

August 27 1791

Louis XVI is deposed

1792

by the Legislative Assembly; also call for the election of the National Convention

War of the First Coalition

1792 - 1797

France declares war on Austria

April 20 1792

Sans-culottes storm the Tuileries

August 10 1792

September Massacre

September 1792

National Convention meets

September 21 1792

abolishes monarchy, creates new government and constitution

Whitney invents cotton gin

1793

Eli Whitney

Second Partition of Poland

1793

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Execution of Louis XVI

January 21 1793

Execution of Marie Antoinette

October 16 1793

Thermidorean Reaction

1794

Execution of Robespierre

July 28 1794

Third Partition of Poland

1795

Condorcet's 'Progress of the Human Mind'

1795

Directory rules France

1795 - 1799

ineffective and inefficient

Constitution of 1795

1795

drafted by National Convention

Hutton's 'The Theory of the Earth'

1795

Newbold invents cast-iron plow

1797

Charles Newbold; agricultural revolution

Malthus's 'An Essay on the Principle of Population'

1798

poverty and misery were unavoidable because population growth was growing faster than the food supply; war, disease, and famine were checks on population growth; smaller families could stop population growth

Napoleon overthrows Directory

November 9 1799

The Concordat of 1801

July 15 1801

between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, giving French government control over the Church in France

Treaty of Amiens

March 27 1802

Napoleon crowns himself Emperor

May 18 1804

Battle of Trafalgar

October 21 1805

Nelson defeats Napoleon

Battle of Jena

1806

Napoleon defeats Prussia

Battle of Friedland

1807

Napoleon defeats Russia

Treaty of Tilsit

1807

between France and Russia

Fulton's steamship

1807

Robert Fulton

France invades Russia

June 24 1812

Battle of Nations

October 1813

Grand Alliance defeats France

First steam engine locomotive

1814

George Stephenson

Louis XVIII of France

April 11 1814

Napoleon is exiled to Elba

April 11 1814

Congress of Vienna

November 1814

Napoleon's escape & 100 days

1815

Battle of Waterloo

June 1815

Wellington defeats Napoleon

Ricardo's 'On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation'

1817

David Ricardo; Iron Law of Wages: human wages must sufficient to buy food; believed in limiting the size of the family and opposed governmental help for the poor for fear it would lead to greater suffering

Carlsbad Decree

1819

Metternich imposes the Carlsbad Decree upon the German Confederation

Six Acts

1819

designed to control radical leaders in Britain

Revolutions in Spain, Sardinia, Portugal, & Greece

1820 - 1824

Charles X of France

1824

Delacroix's 'The Massacre at Chios'

1824

Decembrist Revolt

1825

Greeks gain independence

1830

July Ordinances

1830

(Four Ordinances) forbade freedom of the press and reduced number of eligible voters

July Revolution

July 26 1830 - July 29 1830

France; Charles X suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press

Great Reform Bill

1832

passed by British Parliament

Factory Act

1833

passes in England

Deere invents self-cleaning steel plow

1837

John Deere
'MERICA!

Telegraph is developed

1837

Chartist Movement

1837

Ten Hours Act

1847

passed in England

Marx & Engels's 'Communist Manifesto'

1848

Mill's 'On Liberty'

1859

John Stuart Mill

Reform Bill of 1867

1867

English secret ballot

1872

Pope Leo XII's 'Rerum Novarum'

1891

Potsdam Conference

1945

Truman and Stalin disagree over the Yalta Conference on Eastern Europe

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech

1946

Truman Doctrine

1947

Marshall Plan

1947

India becomes independent

1947

Berlin Blockade/Airlift

1948 - 1949

State of Israel created

1948

Marshal Tito breaks with USSR

1948

German Democratic Republic

1949

East Germany

Federal Republic of Germany created

1949

West Germany

NATO is formed

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Chinese Communists defeat Nationalists

1949

Communists under Mao Tse-tung defeat Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-Shek

USSR tests a-bomb

1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

divided into North (supported by Stalin) and South (supported by US) along 38th parallel; ended with armistice that kept the division

North Korea invades South Korea

June 25 1950

backed by Stalin

US tests H-bomb

1952

Greece & Turkey join NATO

1952

USSR tests H-bomb

1953

Armistice maintains 38th Parallel

1953

Stalin dies

1953

began a struggle for power within USSR; Georgy Malenkov as premier (later ousted), Lavrenti Beria as head of Secret Police (later arrested and executed), Vyacheslav Molotov as Foreign Minister (later demoted and disappeared); replaced by Nikolai Bulganin; Nikita Khrushchev emerges

Warsaw Pact

1955

USSR's response to NATO; consisted of USSR and 7 satellites in Eastern Europe

Geneva Summit

1955

representatives from Britain, France, and US meet with USSR representatives; discussed East-West relation in friendly manner but were unable to resolve differences

West Germany joins NATO

1955

Uprisings in Poland & Hungary

1956

instigated by Khrushchev's anti-Stalin campaign; Wladyslaw Gomulka (Poland) managed to win greater concessions for Poland while calming anti-Soviet feelings; Imre Nagy (Hungary) became president and withdrew from Warsaw Pact, Khrushchev crushed the rebellion; Nagy replaced by puppet regime under János Kádár

Khrushchev as new party leader

1958

Khrushchev visits US

1959

Fidel Castro overthrows Cuban government

1959

overthrew corrupt government of Fulgencio Batista; promised to restore democracy (liar, liar, plants for hire)

U-2 Incident

June 1960

USSR shot down unarmed American spy place inside USSR territory; Eisenhower refused to apologize

Castro proclaims Cuba as communist

1961

began receiving support from USSR

Berlin Wall

August 1961

Khrushchev orders construction of the Berlin Wall; became symbol of the Cold War and the failure of the communist system

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962

Khrushchev ordered nuclear missiles in Cuba; Kennedy announced naval blockade of Cuba; Soviets agreed to remove missiles, US promised not to invade Cuba

Political Leaders

Philip IV of France

1285 - 1314

Pope Boniface VIII

1294 - 1303

Pope Benedict XI

1303 - 1304

Pope Clement V

1305 - 1314

Pope Gregory XI

1370 - 1378

Pope Urban VI

1378 - 1389

Pope Clement VII

1378 - 1394

Pope Alexander V

1409 - 1417

Pope Martin V

1417 - 1431

Henry VI of England

1422 - 1461

Pope Eugenius IV

1431 - 1447

Pope Nicholas V

1447 - 1455

Pope Pius II

1458 - 1464

Louis XI of France

1461 - 1483

Edward IV of England

1461 - 1483

Pope Sixtus IV

1471 - 1484

Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain

1474 - 1516

Charles VIII of France

1483 - 1498

Richard III of England

1483 - 1485

Henry VII of England

1485 - 1509

Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

Louis XII of France

1498 - 1515

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Pope Leo X

1513 - 1521

Francis I of France

1515 - 1547

Charles I of Spain

1516 - 1556

Charles V of HRE

1519 - 1556

Pope Clement VII

1523 - 1534

Philip II of Spain

1556 - 1598

Elizabeth I of England

1558 - 1603

Ferdinand of HRE

1558 - 1564

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

James I of England

1603 - 1625

Louis XIII of France

1610 - 1643

Michael Romanov of Russia

1613 - 1654

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Frederick William of Prussia

1640 - 1688

Louis XIV of France

1643 - 1715

fights in the...
- War of Devolution
- Dutch War
- War of the League of Augsburg
- War of the Spanish Succession

Leopold I of Austria

1657 - 1705

Charles II of England

1660 - 1685

Peter the Great of Russia

1682 - 1725

James II of England

1685 - 1688

Frederick I of Prussia

1688 - 1713

Queen Anne of England

1702 - 1714

Charles VI of Austria

1711 - 1740

Frederick William I of Prussia

1713 - 1740

George I of England

1714 - 1727

Louis XV of France

1715 - 1774

George II of England

1727 - 1760

Maria Theresa of Austria

1740 - 1780

Frederick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

George III of England

1760 - 1820

Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 - 1796

Joseph II of Austria

1765 - 1790

Louis XVI of France

1774 - 1792

Leopold II of Austria

1790 - 1792