1850-1910

Culture

Charles Darwin wrote "The Descent of Man"

1851

One of Darwin's more famous writings, "The Descent of Man" pertains to the topic of natural selection and humans ancestral relationship to great apes. This was a writing that was heavily debated and talked about in European society and helped aid in the scientific community and exploration of other countries.
Sources for Western Society, Charles Darwin, The Decent of Man, page 366-370.

David Livingstone

1854 - 1856

David Livingstone was on of the first westerners to transcontinental journey across Africa. His writing inspired the minds of many, altering the social view of the world. It was his stories and tails that sparked the boom in interest in Africa among European countries.
"David Livingstone." BBC History. BBC, 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, Social Darwinism's birth

1859

Charles Darwin writes the contreversial book on the origin of species which had huge cultural and social implications in science and later imperialism.
It would be used to justify racism and the "natural" right of nations to conquer others known as Social Darwinism. This was taken from Darwin's writings and applied to groups of people and countries to show the powerful governments and countries were naturally selected to rule and justified in their ability to be the fittest.
Text Book, Mckay, Chapter 22, Page 751.

Henry Stanley Explores Africa

1876

Not unlike Livingstone, Stanley's writings and explorations sparked much societal debt and curiosity in Africa.
King Leopold starts to expand into central Africa and sends in Henry Stanley in order to insure trade relations with native peoples. His tails also spark interest in exploration, the sense of European superiority, and movement towards the conquest of Africa.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 24, Page 814.

Source Book, Henry Stanley, "A White Explorer in Black Africa" Chapter 24, Page, 393-396

Kippling writes the "White Mans Burden"

1899

This poem is a cultural evaluation of what Kipling though of Imperialism. It is Kipling commenting on how the white man has the right and duty to take over those who are lower then himself. He uses Social Darwinism to help justify this.
Text Book, McKay Chapter 24, Page 818.

Henry Stanley writes "A White Explorer in Black Africa"

1909

In this document Stanley details his exploration through Africa, his interactions with new cultures and people, and his tactics for dealing with them and the Congo. Helping to set alit the ideas, European superiority, and fantasies about Africa.
Source Book, Henry Stanley, "A White Explorer in Black Africa" Chapter 24, Page, 393-396

Political

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

The Unification of Italy was done through the help of Frances Napoleon emperor in order to entice the Austrians into attacking Italy. This would allow people in Italy to unite under one flag and purpose. This would lead to a rise in nationalism and to men like Giuseppe Mazzini who spoke of nationalism in Italy from its history and shared culture and of universal male suffrage.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 23, Page 762-766

Kulturkampf, Bismark's attack on the Catholic Church

1870 - 1878

Kulturkampf was a document where Otto von Bismark essentially attacked the the church and started to put National pride before religious affiliation. This was an attempt to try and have people unify under the name of a country and not under the name of a religion, essentially trying to protect Nationalism in the budding unified countries. Due to this the church grew angry and felt cut out of power, despising naturism and its affiliates.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 23, Page 779.

Egypt Effectively ruled by France and Britain

1876

Due to the Egyptian government borrowing huge sums from the two nations the country was left in a debt that couldn't be payed. This lead to Britain and France sending advisors and accountants who basically ran the country and swung all trade and production benefit to their countries needs.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 24, Page 803.

Most of Africa under European Control

1880 - 1900

Most of Africa under Imperialist rule of European nations. The scramble for Africa is almost complete and ground rules have been set by the Berlin Conference.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 24, Page 811

Jules Ferry Speech to Inspire the Pursuit of Colonization and Conquest.

1884

French Prime Minister Jules Ferry gave this speech in order to inspire the Chamber of Deputies to commit themselves to colonization and expansion. He talks about the economic and political benefits to imperialism, and that they should disregard the questions of the conquered rights and focus on the political benefits of Imperialism.
Sources for Western Society, Jules Ferry "Speech Before the French Chamber of Deputies", Chapter 24, Page 389-391

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

Otto von Bismark of Germany calls the Berlin Conference to talk about Imperialism and what a country must do in order to be recognized by other nations as having control of an area. This is essentially the dividing up of Africa. One of the most important thing mentioned to be recognized was civilizing missions and conversions to the Christen faith with missionaries.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 24, page 814

J. A Hobson Raises Concern about Imperialism

1902

This document offers a cultural, social, but mainly economic critique of the potential issues with Imperialism which was growing intensely at the making of this document. J. A Hobson talks about how it is bad for the nation, its people, the economy, and those in the other nations.
Sources for the Western Society, J. A. Hobson, " Questioning the Economics of Imperialism." Chapter 24, page 399-401

Individual and Collective Rights

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860

The second war of the Opium trade in China. It involved the British and the French against China's Qing Dynasty. It caused by the rapid increase of Imperialism. The British wanted China to open to British merchants, make the the opium trade legal, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, allow a British ambassador to live in Beijing and for the English-language version of all treaties to take precedence over the Chinese. The Qing dynasty refused wanting to retain the countries individual rights and power above that of the European countries.
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 24, Page 801-802

Dreyfus Accused of Spying and Critiques

1894 - 1906

What was called the Dreyfus Affair was a case of miss identification by the French military of a man accused to be a spy. He was punished and jailed but then there was information that suggested that he was innocent. Instead of admitting the mistake the military destroyed the evidence. This lead to questions about individual rights, anti-Semitism and was in a time of tumultuous nationalism and governmental power struggles.
Emily Sola wrote to the French military high command accusing them of failing justice and violating and individuals rights by imprisoning and not admitting their fault in Dreyfus false accusation denying him freedom. (1898)
Text Book, McKay, Chapter 23, Page 781-782.
Sources for Western Society, Emily Zola "J'Accuse" Chapter 23, page 383-385

Mark Twain Critique the Belgian King and his actions in the Congo

1905

Due to King Loepold approving harsh punishment and cruel treatment of individuals who failed to meet rubber production quotas in the Congo. Mark Twain wrote what is know as "King Leopold's Soliloquy." This pamphlet by Twain was written to object and satirize the treatment of the individuals in the Congo.
Sources for Western Society, Mark Twain. "King Leopold's Soliloquy." Chapter 24 Page 397-398