The political history began around 3000 BCE, when KING MENES united LOWER EGYPT with UPPER EGYPT. his established the first dynasty which was known as the OLD KINGDOM. it lased until 2200 BCE. There is civil war after and torn apart the country.
Nile, unlike Tigris and Euphrates, flooded with annual regularity, proving silt soil for agriculture. Egypt, unlike Mesopotamian plain, was protected by sea, desert and river cataracts.Egyptian civilization was confident, tranquil and insular. PHARAOH, according to Egypt THEOCRACY(神权政体),was the absolute ruler and the god.
Egyptian society- has classes and the dynastic rights were MATRIARCHAL. HATSHEPSUT was the only women pharaoh.few talented people can rise to upper classes,and most people were serfs (worked for pyramids and land).
Largest pyramid- at GIZA by Pharaoh CHEOPS to shelter the death body of pharaoh.
HIEROGLYPHICS (象形文字)- Egypt priestly writing.
PAPYRUS- a paper-like material invented by Egyptians.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM- the Egyptians developed a solar system of 365 days. they also development geometry and number system based on decimals. However, they did not have zero and did not use money. They trade by BARTERING. they trade by using rivers and the seasonal ETESIAN WINDS.
located in today's Peru and have complex features like the other civilization. Caral is considered as the first America known city.they have pyramids in which higher class lived on top and lower classes lived on ground-level apartment. they also developed QUIPU（结绳文字), a system of recording. Caral is the trade center and no war evidence has been found. it may be abandoned due to drought.
MESOPOTAMIAN is the land between TIGRIS and EUPHRATES rivers. the are has rich alluvial (冲积层） soil. people were able to grow crops by building dams and digging irrigation ditches. This agricultural are has been known in history as FERTILE CRESCENT. city was built on this land by 3000 BCE and it was the residential center, worship center,and commercial center.
the Sumerians (苏美尔人） laid the foundation for the civilization. invaders like Akkadians adopted Sumerian way and formed allied city states.
ZIGGURAT- high, terraced pyramid built by the Babylonians and Assyrians.
The civilization is next to a river, was protected by the Himalaya mountain, Hindu Kush mountain, and the Great Indian Desert. HARAPPA and MOHENJO-DARO are two of the great cities. they are well-planned cities with priestly like ruler, and enjoyed piped water,ceremonial bathhouse. They have standard measure system, and writing system that have not been deciphered. they traded with Mesopotamia.
The first empire established on Mesopotamian by Akkadian leader Sargon. However, his system lack tax collecting to sustain the military and therefore his empire failed after his death.
Prince of Thebes established the MIDDLE KINGDOM in 2100 BCE in Egypt. (OLD KINGDOM WAS KNOWN FOR PYRAMID AND MIDDLE WAS KNOW FOR ART, LITERATURE AND IDEAS). The middle kingdom was torn apart by civil war and invaders, the HYKSOS, in 1700 BCE.
Adena (around 2000BCE)was an agricultural culture. Adena people constructed great earthen mounds for defense and burial. later, the Hopewell people (200-500 CE) built even more elaborate mounds and extended the Adena culture.
After the fell of Sargon's empire, the Sumerian city Ur dominated the others and Hammurabi (我们伟大的汉莫拉比啊), established the Babylonia empire.
HAMMURABI'S CODE was issued by on the concept an eye for an eye and of unequal punishment among classes. it provided the first standardized and regularized justice.
Trade was also the chief occupation and many priests
carried on trade. mental ingots was used for currency and the record for business prompted the writing system called CUNEIFORM (楔形文字). it was written on clay tablets and baked. A CALENDAR BASED ON LUNAR CYCLE was invented for farmers and a mathematics system based on scaled of 12 was invented. New farming way such as using plows and oxen, and new tools like tin and copper were used.
Political order: classes were rigid and were fixed by laws and women could earn property and engage in business.
Religion: the god was not based on animals but on nature. this religion is polytheistic(多神论), and tended to take on anthropomorphic forms. The gods were thought to be the architect of natural disasters and so people looked on their gods as angry and wrathful. the great epic poem EPIC OF GILGAMESH, shows Sumerians wrestling with the enduring question of life.
Since Mesopotamian was a easy plain to invade, the empire felled to Hittites at 1600 BCE.
Egyptian rebelled against Hyksos and established the NEW KINGDOM. the influence from outside was evident. They became efficient warrior during the reign of THUTMOSE III, and expanded the territory. The MONOTHEISTIC was influenced by IKHNATON. RAMSES II, the last new kingdom pharaoh, lost the empire to foreign rules. temples was the supreme architecture achievement in this period (ex. KARNAK)
located in the tropical forest in eastern Mexico at SAN LORENZO( a city 1200-900 BCE) and LA VENTA(a city 900-500 BCE). Maize cultivation along the river provided the basis for a state ruled by a hereditary elite in which religious ceremonies dominated much of life.They had significant architecture achievement and developed a writing system that seemed to influence the later Maya civilization. the also trade with the nearby states.
Chavin is an urban society closed to Olmecs. this society has classes and art focused on real animals. they worshiped two gods, one of witch is the "smiling god". it was the trade and religious center that spreads it culture far .its population reached 15 million at its peak.
Copper mix with tin to make bronze and gave rise to artisans .
Minoans developed a civilization on the island of GRETE. Its good culture is reflected at the palace in the city of Knossos. Minoans carried their civilization to Greece and formed a new civilization called MYCENAEAN.
famous assult- the siege of Troy in 1200 BCE- was described in Geek epic poem THE ILIAD and THE ODYSSEY.by HOMER.
the civilized world conquered the land around with the help of CHARIOT and only aristocracy can have them.
Later the Dorian conquered the Mycenaean and became part of the Greek synthesis.
by 2500 BCE Non Nok Tha people in Thailand start to make bronze tools and implement. bronze making reach its height in 500 BCE when Dong Son people created huge bronze and beautiful drums.
Xia- 2000 BCE - 1600 BCE
Shang dynasty began as the same time when Hammurabi ruled in Babylon.
aristorcorcy in shang society lived in extended family and was patriarch (controlled by the oldest male).The leader had a sizable bureaucracy but most of the population was governed by VASSAL containers.有钱的贵族会找巫师（SHAMAN）， 那些巫师根据甲骨（Oracle bones)来算命。 文字渐渐发扬。
Iron was an accidental byproduct of smelting copper or lead in the Hittite Empire in present day Turkey.The Hittites was the first to use and spread iron.
Consequence- 1. set off another wave of barbarian invasions; 2. efficient agriculture, better trade toll and raise economy. 3. led to larger territorial state or empires (ex. ASSYRIAN EMPIRE & PERSIAN EMPIRE)
Aryan, spoke an Indo-European language called SANSKRIT, used the KHYBER and BOLAN PASSES through the HINDU KUSH mountain range to migrate into India and settled down to the site of the Indus Valley civilization.They conquered some of the native Dravidians. story about that can be found in RIG VEDA, the oldest religious writing, and the MAHABHARATE, a vast epic poem describing heroic battle. Another great epic of India is RAMAYANA.
By 900 BCE, the use of iron spread to South Asia and poor men there used iron weapon to protect themselves.
Vedas: The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. 1. The Rigveda, containing hymns to be recited by the hotar, or presiding priest; 2. The Yajurveda, containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest; 3. The Samaveda, containing formulas to be sung by the udgatar or priest that chants; 4. The Atharvaveda, a collection of spells and incantations, apotropaic charms and speculative hymns.
Caste system of Aryan： 1. Brahmin: priests, scholars and teachers 2. Kshatriyas: warriors, administrators and law enforcers 3.Vaishyas: agriculturists, cattle raisers and traders 4. Sudras: service providers and artisans; originally non-Aryans who were admitted to Vedic society.
Jati-caste; dharma- religious duties of different caste;
Much of the society was unwilling to cede authority to the caste of Brahman so a religion based on ASCETICISM emerged as recorded in the UPANISHADS (奥义书）. the religion believe the end of a religious life is quest for release from a cycle of rebirth, or REINCARNATION, by a process of self-annihilation. The true holy man did not need the priest but can find truth himself through meditation and asceticism. This thought marks the birth of HINDUISM.
Religion: Indra- a war leader, has strongest personality, the destroyer of cities and god of thunder and storm.(原为上古人崇拜，但经婆罗门改革，雷神地位逐渐被 Shiva， Brahma, 和 Vishnu取代)
Shiva- Shiva is regarded as one of the primary forms of God and "the Destroyer" or "the Transformer" among the Trimurti
Brahman- the Hindu god of creation and one of the Trimūrti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. According to the Brahmā Purāņa, he is the father of Manu, and from Manu all human beings are descended.
Vishnu- It describes Vishnu as the all-pervading essence of all beings, the master of—and beyond—the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports, preserves, sustains and governs the universe and originates and develops all elements within.
Capital Nineveh. located on the original Hittie empire and ruled by force
Established on original assyrian empire site. Assyrian was overthrown due to CAVALRY revolution (mountain horse, bow in hand)
The region of Southeast Asia, the seagoing trade was so developed that they probably traveled to Australia and met the ABORIGINES, who might arrive during the Ice Age. Their belief was DREAMTIME when great ancestor walked the earth.they believed spirits of great ancestors live in all things.
Because of the environmental and the desiccation of the desert,the changes of the period from agriculture to metallurgy were diffused into Africa from the outside in a later time. Many scholars believe the spread of agriculture and iron came from the civilizations on Mesopotamian.The earliest iron casting culture in Wast Africa is the Nok people thrived between 900 BCE and 200 BCE.
A pastoral culture. They might originate near the Caucasus mountain and moved to Europe by 6500 BCE. they may be the ancestor of Greek and Celts. They moved again by 3000 BCE adnd conquest the nearby settled societies, leading to a diffused of population and dispersion of culture.
Pastoralism concentrated mostly in the grassland of Eurasia and the Sahara desert region.the pastoral culture is always affected by the weather, growing population, and the invasion of neighboring tribe. They usually lived along the boarder of settled societies and developed their culture centered on animals like horse.
Pastoral tribe moved around a lot.
1. The first movement began around 2000 BCE when the early civilization like China and Indus-Valley were weaken by them.
2. The second wave occurred around 400 CE to 800 CE when Asiatic tribes appear to have moved west and push each other which eventually overwhelmed the Roman Empire.
3. The third waves was Mongols at 1200 CE to 1400 CE.
Religion was another important interaction by the time. Hebrew even traced their origin ABRAHAM to a Sumerian city called UR.
Old testament story: Yahweh command Abraham to find Cannon. Jacob led his people to Egypt during famine. The book of Exodus tells how Moses took his people out of Egypt around 1240 BCE and traveled to MOUNT SINAI to get the ten commandments.THE TORAH, the first five book of the Old testament, contain the law of Moses that require ethical belief in one God, ETHICAL MONOTHEISM. A leader name SOUL united Hebrew and became the first king by 1021 BCE. David, his successor, built the capital at Jerusalem. SOLOMON, David's son built wide trade network and produced copper to make a lot of money. But teh money cannot support his expensive temple building program. Solomon them imposed taxes and CORVEE LABOR(those who use work to pay taxes). After Solomon died, people revolted and built the kingdom of Israel. Another two tribe united as JUDAH. The new Babylonian empire then conquered ISRAEL and JUDAH by the 700s BCE.
The stories above demonstrated the diffusion of culture, including technology and the idea of monotheism.
The Phoenicians emerged around 2000 BCE on eastern Mediterranean coast and they shared the coast with teh LYDIANS, who developed the coin money later. Phoenicians can produce vivid purple dye from shellfish which used on clothes to show royalty. Phoenicians were traders , shipbuilders, sailors, and colonizers. They extended their trading network West to England, South to the tip of Africa.
The most remarkable achievement was that they invented an alphabet called PHONOGRAMS,a simplified method of wiring using 22 consonants the symbolized sounds. The wriitng system was easy to learn, making reading less exclusive. Later the Greek added vowels (元音) to the alphabet which later developed to the alphabet for all western European language.
The kingdom of Kush (present day Sudan) became independent by 1000 BCE and conquered Egypt in 715 BCE. But Kush's bronze weapon lost to Assyrian's iron weapon, and so they lost Egypt to the Assyrian in 672 BCE. learning iron technology from Assyrian, the Kush king located a new capital called MEROE and the development of the iron tech made Kush a strong economic and military state. The Kush people trade with East Africa, Arabia, and India from ports of the Red Sea.
The earliest iron casting culture in Wast Africa is the Nok people thrived between 900 BCE and 200 BCE.
The migration spread iron making the agriculture throughout Africa.The Bantu people was originated in eastern Nigeria and then moved first to Sudan, then to all around Africa.The migration was probably result of overpopulation and the desiccation of the desert.