Aryan, spoke an Indo-European language called SANSKRIT, used the KHYBER and BOLAN PASSES through the HINDU KUSH mountain range to migrate into India and settled down to the site of the Indus Valley civilization.They conquered some of the native Dravidians. story about that can be found in RIG VEDA, the oldest religious writing, and the MAHABHARATE, a vast epic poem describing heroic battle. Another great epic of India is RAMAYANA.
By 900 BCE, the use of iron spread to South Asia and poor men there used iron weapon to protect themselves.
Vedas: The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. 1. The Rigveda, containing hymns to be recited by the hotar, or presiding priest; 2. The Yajurveda, containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest; 3. The Samaveda, containing formulas to be sung by the udgatar or priest that chants; 4. The Atharvaveda, a collection of spells and incantations, apotropaic charms and speculative hymns.
Caste system of Aryan： 1. Brahmin: priests, scholars and teachers 2. Kshatriyas: warriors, administrators and law enforcers 3.Vaishyas: agriculturists, cattle raisers and traders 4. Sudras: service providers and artisans; originally non-Aryans who were admitted to Vedic society.
Jati-caste; dharma- religious duties of different caste;
Much of the society was unwilling to cede authority to the caste of Brahman so a religion based on ASCETICISM emerged as recorded in the UPANISHADS (奥义书）. the religion believe the end of a religious life is quest for release from a cycle of rebirth, or REINCARNATION, by a process of self-annihilation. The true holy man did not need the priest but can find truth himself through meditation and asceticism. This thought marks the birth of HINDUISM.
Religion: Indra- a war leader, has strongest personality, the destroyer of cities and god of thunder and storm.(原为上古人崇拜，但经婆罗门改革，雷神地位逐渐被 Shiva， Brahma, 和 Vishnu取代)
Shiva- Shiva is regarded as one of the primary forms of God and "the Destroyer" or "the Transformer" among the Trimurti
Brahman- the Hindu god of creation and one of the Trimūrti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. According to the Brahmā Purāņa, he is the father of Manu, and from Manu all human beings are descended.
Vishnu- It describes Vishnu as the all-pervading essence of all beings, the master of—and beyond—the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports, preserves, sustains and governs the universe and originates and develops all elements within.