While the exact causes of the French Revolution are far too numerous and complex to condense into a single bullet point, most explanations have to do with the sorry state of the French monarchy by the end of the 18th Century. The economy of the Ancien Régime, wracked by poor harvests, high food prices, inefficient transportation services had led France into a financial crisis that was exacerbated by the loss of the majority of French Colonial Empire in the Seven Year's War and debts gained from their war efforts in the American Revolution. At the same time, the philosophies of the Enlightenment, which had helped cause the American Revolution had firmly implanted itself into the minds of the growing urban bourgeoisie and the commoners of the Third Estate, leading to the resentment of the absolute monarchy. In response, finance minister Jacques Necker, a moderate liberal, suggested a slate of tax reforms that included removing tax exemptions from the clergy and nobility as well as standardizing taxes across the country. However, this was not received well by the regional parlements, and the Estates-General was called to help deal with the looming financial problem.