Early life, ch.4 (treason trials), frontier policy, Sejanus' influence
Born a member of the 'gens Claudia"
Predecessor - Augustus, step-father
Successor - Caligula, great-nephew
Gaul, then as part of a 'triple spearhead' (Shotter) with Drusus & Marcus Agrippa of Roman sovereignty as far east as the River Elbe
"Marked Tiberius out as an efficient commander, yet a self-effacing a retiring man"
Adopted her 2 sons Gaius and Lucius
For Tib, "the change was a disaster" - missed his old wife Vispania. According to Suetonius, he once followed her in the street, trying to talk to her.
According to Cassius Dio ROMAN HISTORY, Tiberius did not enjoy a good relationship with his new stepsons
Soon turned into an enforced exile from Augustus' discontent
GALLUS married Vispania + tried to adopt Drusus; bitter hostility rarely concealed until Gallus' death AD33
As insisted by Augustus on Julia's exile - "his daughter's waywardness"
Gallus moved the debate
Tiberius refused - decision accepted. "So far ahead... a man's attitude, family connections, and resources are unpredictable."
Tacitus argues that "its effect was to safeguard Tiberius' dominant position".
Marcus Scribonius Libo Drus accused of SUBVERSIVE PLOTTING. Thought to be a threat to Tiberius; "Libo, a nobleman, was secretly planning a revolt" (Suet. 25). TREASON TRIAL.
Accused originally by Firmius Catus; joined by Trio, Agrippa and Gaius Vibius Serenus
First of the treason trials documented in Tacitus/Suetonius.
Quintus Haterius & Octavius Fronto denounced current extravagance.
Gaius Asinius Gallus spoke against them - "The extension of the empire has meant the growth of private fortunes. This is nothing new..." (Tac.)
Tiberius observed it to be not a time for censorship.
Tacitus - "the country was nearly plunged into the horros of civil war by the darings of a single slave".
Clemens, slave, pretended to be the late Agrippa Postumus.
Clemens was caught and killed, but Tib in "two minds whether to use the army" - note Tacitus' use of "the naive public"
"Tacitus dared not execute him publicly, but ordered him to be killed in a secluded part of the palace"
"He also gave certain senators financial assistance..." p94
Appealed for help for his children. "These boys... have been brought up at the emperor's wish, not mine"
Tiberius initially refused - "If every poor man is to come here..."
Senate changed his mind on mass dissatisfaction.
Eventually gave him the money for his children.
Charged with treason for speaking insultingly about the divine Augustus, as well as about Tiberius and his mother, and for committing adultery. For adultery - her lover (Manlius) banned from Italy and Africa, and her relatives exiled within 200 miles of Rome.
Following this, Tiberius requested in his mother's name that no words uttered against her should result in a treason charge.
Lepida held a "glorious Aemilian lineage" and was great-granddaughter of both Sulla and Pompey --> Treason trials hitting elite.
Accused of falsely claiming to bear a son to "the rich and childless Publius Sulpicius Quirinius".
Note Tacitus' presentation of this trial - "The emperor's attitude during this trial is not easy to reconstruct. Alternately, or simultaneously, both anger and indulgence were perceptible". Personal affiliations with the trials - not indifferent?
"An informer attacked the knight... for writing a well-known poem about Germanicus' death... now accused of composing another poem while Drusus was ill".
He was imprisoned and immediately killed; against Tib's wishes?
Drew from Tiberius a "characteristically cryptic" reproof of the Senate. Declared that no senatorial decree should be registered at the Treasury for 9 days; executions to be deleted for that period.
Accused of extortion by the people of Asia (his governorship)
Offences against the divinity of Augustus and the imperial majesty of Tiberius.
VITELLIUS - charged with offering the keys of the treasury and Military Treasury for seditious projects
POMPONIUS - accused by former praetor Considius of friendship with Gallus after Sejanus' execution.
Example of a good governorship
Defeated by Blaesus in AD22
Death of client-king. (most wanted annexation by Rome, NB)
Sent by Tiberius - "could only be put right by the wisdom of [him]". Drusus "not sufficiently mature".
On death of client-king; death of Achelaeus. (who died on prosecution for having "shown no attention" to Tiberius)
p99-100: GERMAN TRIBE INFIGHTING
NOTE - DRAMATIC PLAY BY TACITUS. DRAMATISATION AND FICTIONALISATION OF CONVERSATIONS/SPEECHES.
An appeal by the Suebi to Rome for help against the Cherusci; Tiberius refused to help.
Since Maroboduus had not helped Rome against the Cherusci, he was not inclined to offer his services. Instable region; bound to lose anyway.
Thrace, Lower Danube, divided between 2 kings by AUGUSTUS.
Trouble arose when one killed the other; Tiberius replaced surviving king and appointed a Roman to supervise the 2 new kings.
Rebellion led by Romanised noble Gauls leading the Aedui and Treviri. Put down easily by legions from Upper Germany, commanded by C. Silius; but Silius abused his victory and was later exiled by Tib. for extortion.
REASONS - Heavy debts, "desperate characters... penniless, frightened men driven to crime by their evil records"
3 strong tribes: Coelaletae, Odrysae and Dii, opened hostilities on implementation of unfamiliar Roman rule, and when Rhoematalces had been forcibly criticised for not avenging his peoples wrong.
Commander of the nearest Roman army, Publius Vellacus, sent auxiliary cavalry and infantry against the marauding and recruiting forces.
ANNIHILATED THEM: "what followed was not a battle or even a fight, but a massacre of half-armed stragglers, without Roman bloodshed"
Sejanus praised by Tiberius for preventing fire from spreading beyond Pompey's theatre. Tac p154
TURNING POINT - Tacitus