Cold War 1944-80

Topic

Emergence of the Cold War

1944 - 1953

Sino-Soviet relations

1949 - 1976

The Arms Race

1949 - 1963

Post-Stalin thaw and bid for peaceful coexistence

1953 - 1961

Detente

1969 - 1980

Emergence of The Cold War

The Tehran Conference

November 1943

Moscow Conference (percentage agreement)

October 1944

Lend-Lease abruptly ended

1945

Communist government imposed in Romania

1945

Britain fears loss of world influence to USSR, attempts to create Anglo-US Pact.

1945

The Yalta Conference

February 1945

The Potsdam Conference

August 1945

The Council of Foreign Ministers

September 1945

The Moscow Council

December 1945

Hungary and Czech free elections

1946

US ended reparations from US German zone

1946

Stalin's speech to The Supreme Soviet

February 1946

Kennan's 'Long Telegram'

February 1946

The Iran Crisis

March 1946

Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' Speech

March 1946

The Novikov Telegram

September 1946

Stalinisation of Eastern Europe

1947 - 1949

The Truman Doctrine

March 1947

The Marshall Plan

June 1947

Molotov Plan, basis for COMECON

July 1947

Rigged elections lead to Communist gov in Hungary

August 1947

COMINFORM

September 1947

Communist coup in Czeck

February 1948

Defenestration of Jan Masaryk

March 1948

Berlin Blockade and Airlift

June 1948 - May 1949

South Korean gov of Syngman Rhee looks vulnerable

1949

Unpopular, reliant on US, in 1949 US and USSR withdraw troops.

COMECON

1949

NATO set up

April 1949

Creation of Trizonia

April 1949

US Secretary of State seemingly excludes SK from US Asian defensive perimeter

1950

US refuses to give aid and military assistance to South Korea

1950

NSC-68

1950

The Korean War

1950 - 1953

Kim il-Sung troops invade SK, has Stalin's backing, tanks and aircraft

June 1950

Start of UN involvement in Korea

September 1950

Start of Chinese involvement in Korea

November 1950

Post-Stalin thaw and the bid for Peaceful Coexiseance

Indochina War

1946 - 1954

USSR formally recognises Israel

1953

CIA covert operation in Iran

1953

USSR settles border disputes with Turkey and Iran

1953

Berlin uprising

June 1953

Scuppers reunification plans

Malenkov first calls for 'New Course'

August 1953

Domino Theory

1954

Eisenhower announces policy of 'massive retaliatory power'

January 1954

CIA backed coup in Guatemala

1954

Renewal of superpower conference diplomacy

1954 - 1961

SEATO formed

1954

Geneva Conference

April 1954 - July 1954

West Germany joins NATO

October 1954

Soviet Union recognises W Germany and restores relations with Tito's Yugoslavia

1955

Warsaw Pact created

May 1955

Austrian State Treaty

May 1955

Geneva Summit

July 1955

Soviet withdrawal from Finland

1956

Khrushchev visits Britain

1956

Polish uprising

February 1956 - October 1956

Khrushchev's 'secret' speech

February 1956

Published in US in June

Hungarian uprising

July 1956 - November 1956

Eisenhower Doctrine

1957

Second Berlin Crisis

1958 - 1959

John Foster Dulles dies

1959

Khrushchev visits USA and Camp David Summit

September 1959

U2 incident

May 1960

Paris Summit

May 1960

Vienna Summit

June 1961

Third Berlin Crisis, Berlin Wall

August 1961

Fourth Berlin Crisis, Checkpoint Charlie

October 1961

The Arms Race

Hiroshima bomb dropped

August 1945

US deploys 60 B29 bombers to GB

August 1948

USSR successfully tests first atomic bomb

August 1949

Truman announces US to build H bomb

January 1950

US tests first H bomb

November 1952

USSR successfully test ICBM and launch Sputnik 1

1957

CIA Gaither Report

November 1957

NASA established

1958

US and USSR voluntary Moratorium on nuclear tests

October 1958 - August 1961

Growing US-Cuban tension

1959 - 1961

Robert McNamara puts forward flexible response and counterforce

1961 - 1962

Rejects massive retaliation

Bay of Pigs invasion

April 1961

Yuri Gagarin first man in space

April 1961

USSR tests 'Tsar Bomba' most powerful bomb ever dropped

October 1961

H bomb, 50 megatons (Hiroshima 13 kilotons)

Operation Mongoose

October 1961

USSR secretly begins installing missiles in Cuba

September 1962

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14 1962 - October 28 1962

Removal of US missiles from Turkey

1963

Nuclear test ban treaty

1963

McNamara first talks of MAD

1963

Washington-Moscow hotline

1963

Sino-Soviet Relations

Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance

February 1950

US threatens China with nuclear weapons over Korea

1953

First Taiwan Crisis

1954 - 1955

Deterioration in trust between PRC and USSR

1954 - 1957

US and Taiwan sign Mutual Defense Treaty guaranteeing Taiwan's independence

December 1954

Eisenhower previously advised to use Nuclear weapons

Mao's 'Great Leap Forward'

1958 - 1962

Khrushchev proposes joint control over China's nuclear programme

July 1958

Second Taiwan Crisis

August 1958

Khrushchev's visit to Beijing

August 1958

Embarrassed

Khrushchev proposes Pacific 'atom-free zone'

January 1959

Would mean China scrapping nuclear plans

Sino-Indian border disputes

1959 - 1962

Khrushchev criticizes 'Great Leap Forward'

1959

Khrushchev second visit to Beijing, openly insulted each other

1959

Mao acuses Khrushchev of being 'Revisionist'

1960

Khrushchev withdraw Russian experts from China

July 1960

USSR withdraws support to Albania, Mao sends aid

1961

Moscow Conference, Chinese walk out over Albania-'Asian Hitler', 'Old Boot'

1961

Soviet and Chinese Communist Parties criticise each other openly in letters

1963

Mao publicizes Khrushchev's backdown over Cuban Missile Crisis

1963

China successfully tests first nuclear weapon

1964

Moscow meeting between Brezhnev and Zhou Enlai

1964

Mao launches Cultural Revolution

1965

USSR and PRC end diplomatic and trading relations

March 1966

Red Guards cross border into Soviet territory as sign of contempt

1968

USSR begins to worry over possible US-PRC alliance

1969

China now only really has France, Albania and Pakistan as allies

1969

Ussuri River dispute (Zhenboa/Damanskii Island incident)

March 1969 - September 1969

Nixon relaxes trade and travel and recognizes PRC, starts secret talks with Mao

July 1969

Mao invites US ping-pong team to China

April 1971

Henry Kissinger visits China to arrange Presidential visit

July 1971

US backs PRC's entry into UN

October 1971

Nixon visits China

February 1972

Shanghai Communique

February 28 1972

Ford's unsuccessful visit to China

December 1975

Detente

Vietnam War

December 1956 - April 1975

US involvement in Vietnam

1961 - 1973

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

East and West German governments negotiate Berlin Agreement

1970 - 1971

Intervention of Moscow Human Rights Committee

1970

The Moscow Summit

May 1972

OPEC crisis in response to Yom Kippur War

October 1973

Jackson-Vanik amendment

1974

Watergate, weakens US position in Vladivostok

1974

The Helsinki Accords

1975

Angolan Civil War breaks out

November 1975

Heavy criticism of Detente during US elections (mainly Democrats)

1976

Brezhnev speaks favorably of Detente at Soviet Party Congress

1976

Carter proposes much greater arms cuts in SALT 2 than agreed at Vladivostoc

1977

Carter invests in Trident

1978

Communist gov comes to power in Nicaragua

1979

Vienna Agreement: SALT 2 finally signed

June 1979

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

December 27 1979

Carter starts grain embargo against USSR and secretly aided Mujahedeen

February 1980

Leadership

The Grand Alliance

1941 - December 1946

Essentially ended by end of '46 though both sides still engaged in bilateral negotiations, not yet Cold War.

Truman President

1945 - 1953

Roosevelt's death, Truman becomes President

April 1945

Mao leader of PRC

1949 - 1976

Mao proclaims creation of PRC

October 1949

Eisenhower President

1953 - 1961

Collective leadership of Malenkov, Molotov, Bulganin and Khrushchev

March 1953 - 1955

Death of Stalin

March 1953

Beria arrested and executed

December 1953

Khrushchev fighting rivals for power

1955 - 1958

Khrushchev undisputed Soviet leader

1958 - October 1964

Castro comes to power after Cuban Revolution

1959

JFK President

January 1961 - November 1963

Johnson President

November 1963 - January 1969

Brezhnev Soviet Leader

1964 - 1982

Nixon President

January 1969 - August 1974

Ford President

August 1974 - January 1977

Carter President

January 1977 - January 1981

Margaret Thatcher elected

1979

Reagan becomes President

January 1981