kings and queens


Edward the Confessor

1042 - 1066

Anglo-Saxon prince elected by whitengamot.

Spent too much time in religious affairs didn't have an heir

Harold Godwinson


Most powerful noble.

Was chopped up by William the conqueror.

William the conqueror

1066 - 1087

Duke of Normandy; Cousin of Edward the confessor

Received advise from witenagemot; Also called the Great counsel

Created "Domesday Book"

Henry II

1154 - 1189

Great grandson of William the Conqueror

Set up laws that applied to everybody and judges


Richard the lion heart

1189 - 1199

Oldest son of Henry II

Interested more in crusades than ruling England


1199 - 1216

He increased Taxes; ignored the law

Nobles force him to sign Magna Carta

Magna Carta Said that the king could no longer collect taxes unless the great council agreed; guaranteed free men to right of trial of their peers.

Henry III

1216 - 1264

Weak king; council ruled England.

Simon de Montfort

1264 - 1272

Henry III's brother-in-law

Gave people a voice in government by letting them have representatives in the Great Council.

Edward I


Created parliament to advise him and help make laws.


Hugh Capet

987 - 996

CHOSEN as king; weak

Louis VI

1108 - 1179

Also called "Louis the Fat." Strengthened the monarchy by replacing disloyal nobles with loyal people of lower birth. He granted charters to towns and earned the loyalty of the townspeople.

Phillip Augustus

1179 - 1223

He made Paris the center of government. He increased the size f his kingdom through marriage. He appointed royal agents to watch the nobles so they did not become too powerful during the Crusades.

Louis IX

1226 - 1285

Brought Peace to France by ordering the nobles to settle arguments by going to court and not by fighting each other. Made it illegal to use any coins that the king didn't make (got the monye system under his control.)

Phillip IV

1285 - 1314

The Estates-General, a group of Nobles, townspeople and clergy helped him run France. He taxed the people regularly and was first to tax the clergy. He went to war with the Flemish when they refused to let him control their cloth trade. He took over the English Fortresses in France.


Otto I

936 - 973

Wanted to rule without the nobles so asked the Roman Church for help. The Roman Catholic church wanted a western empire, so said they would help. The church allowed him to make his loyal followers church officials like bishops or abbots

In return they gave him money and soldiers. He freed the pope from the Romans so the pope crowned him emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Frederick I

1152 - 1190

Tried to control the nobles and unify the empire but it backfired. The nobles and the pope banded together and beat Frederick's army. Recognized Independence of city-states.

Frederick II

1220 - 1250

Grandson of Frederick I. Ignored Germany and ruled
Sicily. Founded university. When he started to conquer land in Italy, the pope excommunicated him and called for a crusade against him. The German princes broke away from Frederick's rule and loosely ruled themselves.

Rudolph Hapsburg

1273 - 1291

Elected Emperor by German Princes. Encouraged the growth of universities. His family served as emperors for the next 650 years.


The Moors

711 - 1200

The Moors were Muslims who conquered Spain and brought education and luxuriates to Spain. The Spanish were christian and didn't want to be ruled by Muslims they fought and drove the Moors out of Spain.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469 - 1504

Ferdinand was king of Aragon and Isabella was queen of Castille. when they got married they united their kingdoms into one country.They unified Spain through religion and courts. in 1492, and 1502, they issued an edict that everyone had to be catholic or leave. Jews and Muslims left. This left Spain weak because all their artists, merchants, bankers, doctors, and teachers had been either Jews or Muslims.