1932 Secret decree blames Ukrainization, national tendencies, for grain problems. The Ukrainian language is forbidden in the Russian republic. In Ukraine, the Ukrainian leadership is purged, gradually replaced by non-Ukrainians and Russification is brought in. January 22, 1933, Secret directive sent to Kharkiv to close the borders of Ukraine and Kuban from the rest of the USSR, to prevent starving farmers from searching for food. In 6 weeks, 220,000 arrested, many shot, sent to the gulag, 85% were sent home to starve. Red Cross, Cardinal Innitzer demand permission to send famine relief; Moscow denies famine and rejects relief.