It allowed for small farm holdings, permitting Ukrainian farmers to continue farming their private land plots and running small businesses.
A power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin continues.
A cultural renaissance arises, as Ukrainian artists, writers, film directors embrace the call and continue developing an indigenous Ukrainian culture. The Ukrainian language is encouraged and flourishes in schools and government offices. As a result, some Ukrainian intellectuals join the Communist Party of Ukraine.
Stalin takes complete control of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party, introduces the First Five Year Plan (1928-1933) with Collectivisation and Industrialization as the goals.
Arrest of 700 members and show trial of a fictitious SVU (Union for the Liberation of Ukraine) accused of wanting an independent Ukraine with links to the farmers and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Leaders are imprisoned or executed.
1,500,000 to 2,000,000 farmers are sent to Siberia, are executed, or sent to concentration camps with their families. Property of “rich farmers” is confiscated and transferred to collective farms. Uprisings against the government . One third of them in Ukraine.
He is setting unrealistic grain procurements for Ukraine. 40% of harvest in Ukraine to be handed over to the government. Little is left for the farmers. Farmers live off their depleted reserves and small plots and farm animals. Ukrainian farmers flee to cities, to Russia and Belarus in search of food. August 7, 1932 “kolhosp property decree”: death penalty for stealing grain in the field. Unproductive villages in Ukraine (1/3) and the Kuban are deprived of manufactured goods and food stuffs - blacklisted. Villages are cordoned off and left to starve.
1932 Secret decree blames Ukrainization, national tendencies, for grain problems. The Ukrainian language is forbidden in the Russian republic. In Ukraine, the Ukrainian leadership is purged, gradually replaced by non-Ukrainians and Russification is brought in. January 22, 1933, Secret directive sent to Kharkiv to close the borders of Ukraine and Kuban from the rest of the USSR, to prevent starving farmers from searching for food. In 6 weeks, 220,000 arrested, many shot, sent to the gulag, 85% were sent home to starve. Red Cross, Cardinal Innitzer demand permission to send famine relief; Moscow denies famine and rejects relief.