"Learn how demands of African Americans produced a stimulus for civil rights" Works Cited: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octavius_Catto http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigma_Pi_Phi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crisis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Birth_of_a_Nation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Renaissance#Influence_of_the_Harlem_Renaissance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Globetrotters http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr15.html http://jhfc.duke.edu/johnhopefranklin/honors.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nwIdIUVFm4 http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=94011842 http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#events-1948 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/timeline/civil_01.html http://www.ushistory.org/more/timeline.htm
Octvaius Catto was a civil rights activist who led, along with Frederick Douglass, a Recruitment Committee to fight for black emancipation and for the Union. Similar to the actions of Rosa Parks, one Philadelphia evening in May of 1865 he got into a trolley car and declined to get out despite multiple requests. His motion got him into the New York Times and gained him much sympathy. On his way to vote in 1871, Catto was murdered by an ethnic Irish man.
By 1900, 30,000 black teachers were trained and working in the south. At this time, most blacks could read and write.
In 1900, 66% of farmers in the Mississippi Delta were blacks who owned farms after the Civil War.
Sigma Pi Phi, the first fraternity made by blacks, was founded in Philadelphia in 1904. They soon opened new chapters in Chicago and Baltimore.
On July 11th, 1905, the Niagara Movement, a black and white group that pushed for civil rights, held their first meeting.
Alpha Kappa Alpha, the first black female sorority was founded at Howard University in 1908.
The black civil rights alliance The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, formerly the National Negro Committee, held their first meeting on May 31st, 1909.
In 1910 the NAACP began printing a monthly magazine called The Crisis which documented black news. THe magazine is still being printed today, more than a hundred years later.
In 1914 President Wilson re-segregated government facilities after more than 50 years of non-segregated workplaces.
On February 8th, 1915, the movie The Birth of a Nation was released. The movie was very controversial as it painted black men as stupid and sexually aggressive toward white women. The NAACP protested many cities to not show the film.
In 1916 "The Great Migration" began. The Great Migration lasted until 1940 and was a time where about 1 1/5 miilion U.S. blacks moved from the South to the North and Midwest.
In 1916 the Los Angeles Police Department hired the first black female policewoman in America.
The East St. Louis and Houston Riots occurred in 1917. The riots caused many deaths.
Viola Pettus, a black nurse from Texas, cared for sufferers of the Spanish Influenza and the KKK. She was great woman!
The Harlem Renaissance, formerly the "New Negro Movement", was a cultural movement in the 1920s in Harlem, New York, where blacks began feeling free to express themselves through music, dance and literature.
In 1920 Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall were signed as the first black players in the NFL. Polland went on to become the first black NFL coach.
The Negro National League, a black baseball league, was founded in 1920.
In 1921 Bessie Coleman became the first black person in the United States to earn a pilots license.
In 1921 Shuffle Along launched. The play was the first black musical hit on Broadway.
On August 8th, 1925, 35,000 Ku Klux Klan members marched on Washingtom in support of the KKK.
The Harlem Globetrotters began doing exhibition basketball games in 1926. The team was called the "Harlem" Globetrotters because Harlem was considered the center of black culture from the Harlem Renaissance. The Globetrotters are still doing the games almost 100 years later.
"Hallelujah!" was one of the first films in the United States that had an all-black cast.
The Little League became the first non-segregated youth sport.
Lasting from the 1940s to the 1970s, the Second Great Migration was an extension of the first migration in that many blacks moved to avoid segregation in the South to areas where they were more welcome. 5 million blacks moved during this period. Unlike the first migration, blacks also moved to California in this period.
In 1946 Florida, Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Tennessee all had black police officers.
In 1947, black historian John Hope Franklin released a book named From Slavery to Freedom. In 1995 Franklin was honored with The Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor a U.S. civilian can receive.
On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson played his first game as a Brooklyn Dodger. Jackie Robinson was the first black person to play in Major League Baseball (MLB). He was an incredibly talented player who beat the Yankees in the World Series in 1955 and then retired in 1956. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, his first year of eligibility.
In 1948 Hubert Humphrey, a young politician, made a controversial speech at the Democratic National Convention that proclaimed his support for black civil rights. Many attendees were enraged by his message.
In 1948 President Harry S. Truman signed the Executive Order 9981, saying "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin."
On May 17th, 1954, The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools is unlawful in the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The landmark case was a huge moment in the black civil rights movement. Thurgood Marshall, who fought in this case, later became the United States' first black justice in the Supreme Court.
On December 1st, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black women who lived in Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person, which was the custom, and got arrested. Her arrest struck a chord with blacks in Montgomery, who launched a boycott of the buses that lasted for over a year until the buses became desegregated at the end of 1956. A local Reverend of a Baptist church, Martin Luther King Jr. stepped up to become an instrumental leader of the movement that eventually made him a hero.
In February of 1957, Martin Luther King Jr. and two other men created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was the official name of the group of people fighting for the full equality of blacks. The group was founded on a basis of nonviolent civil disobedience and King wanted to make sure that the group wouldn't resort to violence, saying "We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline".
In September of 1957, nine black students at a school in Little Rock, Arkansas were blocked from attending classes by the governor, Governor Orval Faubus. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the Military to get involved. He sent the Army to uphold integration and the National Guard to protect the black students who were also known as the "Little Rock Nine". It was the first time since America's reconstruction that the government called for military intervention to stand for civil rights.
In 1959 Motown Records was started in Detroit, Michigan. Motown was the label for all-time greats like Michael Jackson, Gladys Knight, Lionel Ritchie and Queen Latifah.
In February of 1960, four black college students at a college in Greensboro, North Carolina held at sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Even though they refused to serve the group, they allowed them to stay at the table. Their stubbornness for integration sparked a wave of similar nonviolent protests across the South. Six months after their initial act, the group was served lunch at Woolworth's. Sit-ins from there on were useful all across the South to integrate public places like parks, swimming pools, theaters and libraries.
In 1962, Philadelphia Warriors player Wilt Chamberlain scored 100 points in an NBA game.
James Meredith became the first black person to enroll at the University of Mississippi. The violence surrounding him forced President Kennedy to send 5,000 troops.
Sidney Poitier became the first black to win an Oscar.
On August 28th, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech to about 200,000 people supporting the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom at the Washington Mall's Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. King's gathering was the largest civil rights demonstration ever and his speech became a long lasting token of his strong legacy.
In Birmingham, Alabama in 1963, a white man placed a box with a bomb under the steps of the 16th Street Baptist Church. The bomb caused four little black girls attending Sunday School to die and injured 23 others. Ensuing riots led to two more blacks dying.
In 1964 there were more than 750 riots across the nation that left over 200 people dead and 12,741 injured. There were also more than 15,000 separate cases of arson that destroyed many urban neighborhoods.
In 1964, Cassius Clay won the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship. After the fight he announced he had joined the Nation of Islam and he changed his name to Muhammad Ali.
Martin Luther King Jr. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
On July 2nd, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act outlawed all types of discrimination and gave the government the power to prosecute discrimination in employment, voting and education. The law also ensured the right to vote and promised access to public accommodation.
On March 7, 1965, in Selma, Alabama blacks marched to Montgomery in support of black voting rights. The protesters were stopped at a bridge by police who sent fifty protesters to the hospital after using tear gas, whips and clubs against them. "Bloody Sunday" was witnessed by many shocked people on TV and it was a big reason why the voting rights act was signed into law five months later.
In 1967 Thurgood Marshall became the first black justice in the Supreme Court. Marshall fought previously in the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case in 1954.
In 1967 Robert C. Weaver became the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. He was the first black to occupy a Cabinet position in American history.
In the same year Edward Brooke, a Massachusetts Republican, became the first black to hold a seat in the Senate since Reconstruction.
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on the balcony of a Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. Ironically blacks responded violently to his murder and began rioting across the nation again.