4/04/14 - Joseph Rice - US History B - Black Civil Rights Movement Timeline

"Learn how demands of African Americans produced a stimulus for civil rights" Works Cited: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octavius_Catto http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigma_Pi_Phi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crisis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Birth_of_a_Nation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Renaissance#Influence_of_the_Harlem_Renaissance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Globetrotters http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr15.html http://jhfc.duke.edu/johnhopefranklin/honors.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nwIdIUVFm4 http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=94011842 http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#events-1948 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/timeline/civil_01.html http://www.ushistory.org/more/timeline.htm

Black Civil Rights Movement Timeline

Black Civil Rights Activist Murdered

October 10, 1871

Octvaius Catto was a civil rights activist who led, along with Frederick Douglass, a Recruitment Committee to fight for black emancipation and for the Union. Similar to the actions of Rosa Parks, one Philadelphia evening in May of 1865 he got into a trolley car and declined to get out despite multiple requests. His motion got him into the New York Times and gained him much sympathy. On his way to vote in 1871, Catto was murdered by an ethnic Irish man.

30,000 Black Teachers in South

1900

By 1900, 30,000 black teachers were trained and working in the south. At this time, most blacks could read and write.

66% of Farmers in the Mississippi Delta are Black

1900

In 1900, 66% of farmers in the Mississippi Delta were blacks who owned farms after the Civil War.

Sigma Pi Phi Opens

1904

Sigma Pi Phi, the first fraternity made by blacks, was founded in Philadelphia in 1904. They soon opened new chapters in Chicago and Baltimore.

Orlando Hires the First Black Postman

1904

Niagara Movement Formed

July 11, 1905

On July 11th, 1905, the Niagara Movement, a black and white group that pushed for civil rights, held their first meeting.

Alpha Kappa Alpha Founded

1908

Alpha Kappa Alpha, the first black female sorority was founded at Howard University in 1908.

NAACP Holds FIrst Meeting

May 31, 1909

The black civil rights alliance The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, formerly the National Negro Committee, held their first meeting on May 31st, 1909.

NAACP Starts The Crisis Magazine

1910

In 1910 the NAACP began printing a monthly magazine called The Crisis which documented black news. THe magazine is still being printed today, more than a hundred years later.

President Woodrow Wilson Re-segregates Government Workplaces

1914

In 1914 President Wilson re-segregated government facilities after more than 50 years of non-segregated workplaces.

The Birth of a Nation Released

February 8, 1915

On February 8th, 1915, the movie The Birth of a Nation was released. The movie was very controversial as it painted black men as stupid and sexually aggressive toward white women. The NAACP protested many cities to not show the film.

The Great Migration

1916 - 1940

In 1916 "The Great Migration" began. The Great Migration lasted until 1940 and was a time where about 1 1/5 miilion U.S. blacks moved from the South to the North and Midwest.

Los Angeles Police Department Hires First Black Female Officer

1916

In 1916 the Los Angeles Police Department hired the first black female policewoman in America.

2 Major Riots Occur

1917

The East St. Louis and Houston Riots occurred in 1917. The riots caused many deaths.

Black Nurse Cares for People

1918

Viola Pettus, a black nurse from Texas, cared for sufferers of the Spanish Influenza and the KKK. She was great woman!

The Harlem Renaissance Begins

1919

The Harlem Renaissance, formerly the "New Negro Movement", was a cultural movement in the 1920s in Harlem, New York, where blacks began feeling free to express themselves through music, dance and literature.

First Black NFL Players Signed

1920

In 1920 Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall were signed as the first black players in the NFL. Polland went on to become the first black NFL coach.

Negro National League Started

February 13, 1920

The Negro National League, a black baseball league, was founded in 1920.

First Black American Pilot Earns Pilots License

1921

In 1921 Bessie Coleman became the first black person in the United States to earn a pilots license.

First Black Musical Launches on Broadway Play

May 23, 1921

In 1921 Shuffle Along launched. The play was the first black musical hit on Broadway.

KKK Marches on Washington

August 8,1925

On August 8th, 1925, 35,000 Ku Klux Klan members marched on Washingtom in support of the KKK.

Harlem Globetrotters Started

1926

The Harlem Globetrotters began doing exhibition basketball games in 1926. The team was called the "Harlem" Globetrotters because Harlem was considered the center of black culture from the Harlem Renaissance. The Globetrotters are still doing the games almost 100 years later.

First All-Black Movie Released

1929

"Hallelujah!" was one of the first films in the United States that had an all-black cast.

Little League Founded

1939

The Little League became the first non-segregated youth sport.

The Second Great Migration

Approx. 1940 - Approx. 1970

Lasting from the 1940s to the 1970s, the Second Great Migration was an extension of the first migration in that many blacks moved to avoid segregation in the South to areas where they were more welcome. 5 million blacks moved during this period. Unlike the first migration, blacks also moved to California in this period.

Black Police Officers Abound

1946

In 1946 Florida, Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Tennessee all had black police officers.

John Hope Franklin Releases From Slavery to Freedom

1947

In 1947, black historian John Hope Franklin released a book named From Slavery to Freedom. In 1995 Franklin was honored with The Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor a U.S. civilian can receive.

Jackie Robinson Plays First Baseball Game

April 15, 1947

On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson played his first game as a Brooklyn Dodger. Jackie Robinson was the first black person to play in Major League Baseball (MLB). He was an incredibly talented player who beat the Yankees in the World Series in 1955 and then retired in 1956. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, his first year of eligibility.

Hubert Humphrey Speaks

July 12, 1948

In 1948 Hubert Humphrey, a young politician, made a controversial speech at the Democratic National Convention that proclaimed his support for black civil rights. Many attendees were enraged by his message.

President Truman Ends Discrimination and Inequality in Military

July 26, 1948

In 1948 President Harry S. Truman signed the Executive Order 9981, saying "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin."

Supreme Court Rules in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

May 17, 1954

On May 17th, 1954, The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools is unlawful in the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The landmark case was a huge moment in the black civil rights movement. Thurgood Marshall, who fought in this case, later became the United States' first black justice in the Supreme Court.

Rosa Parks Refuses Giving Up Her Seat and the Birth of a Leader - MLK Jr.

December 1, 1955

On December 1st, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black women who lived in Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person, which was the custom, and got arrested. Her arrest struck a chord with blacks in Montgomery, who launched a boycott of the buses that lasted for over a year until the buses became desegregated at the end of 1956. A local Reverend of a Baptist church, Martin Luther King Jr. stepped up to become an instrumental leader of the movement that eventually made him a hero.

MLK Jr. Creates Southern Christian Leadership Conference

February 14, 1957

In February of 1957, Martin Luther King Jr. and two other men created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was the official name of the group of people fighting for the full equality of blacks. The group was founded on a basis of nonviolent civil disobedience and King wanted to make sure that the group wouldn't resort to violence, saying "We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline".

The Little Rock NIne

September, 1957

In September of 1957, nine black students at a school in Little Rock, Arkansas were blocked from attending classes by the governor, Governor Orval Faubus. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the Military to get involved. He sent the Army to uphold integration and the National Guard to protect the black students who were also known as the "Little Rock Nine". It was the first time since America's reconstruction that the government called for military intervention to stand for civil rights.

Motown Records Founded

1959

In 1959 Motown Records was started in Detroit, Michigan. Motown was the label for all-time greats like Michael Jackson, Gladys Knight, Lionel Ritchie and Queen Latifah.

Student Sit-ins

February 1, 1960

In February of 1960, four black college students at a college in Greensboro, North Carolina held at sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Even though they refused to serve the group, they allowed them to stay at the table. Their stubbornness for integration sparked a wave of similar nonviolent protests across the South. Six months after their initial act, the group was served lunch at Woolworth's. Sit-ins from there on were useful all across the South to integrate public places like parks, swimming pools, theaters and libraries.

Wilt Chamberlain Scores 100 Points In a Basketball Game

1962

In 1962, Philadelphia Warriors player Wilt Chamberlain scored 100 points in an NBA game.

James Meredith Enrolls at University of Mississippi

October 1, 1962

James Meredith became the first black person to enroll at the University of Mississippi. The violence surrounding him forced President Kennedy to send 5,000 troops.

Sidney Poitier Wins Oscar

1963

Sidney Poitier became the first black to win an Oscar.

I Have a Dream

August 28, 1963

On August 28th, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech to about 200,000 people supporting the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom at the Washington Mall's Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. King's gathering was the largest civil rights demonstration ever and his speech became a long lasting token of his strong legacy.

Man Bombs Black Church

September 15, 1963

In Birmingham, Alabama in 1963, a white man placed a box with a bomb under the steps of the 16th Street Baptist Church. The bomb caused four little black girls attending Sunday School to die and injured 23 others. Ensuing riots led to two more blacks dying.

Nationwide Rioting

1964

In 1964 there were more than 750 riots across the nation that left over 200 people dead and 12,741 injured. There were also more than 15,000 separate cases of arson that destroyed many urban neighborhoods.

Cassius Clay Wins World Heavyweight Boxing Championship

1964

In 1964, Cassius Clay won the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship. After the fight he announced he had joined the Nation of Islam and he changed his name to Muhammad Ali.

Martin Luther King Jr. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

1964

Martin Luther King Jr. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

President Johnson Signs Civil Rights Act of 1964

July 2, 1964

On July 2nd, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act outlawed all types of discrimination and gave the government the power to prosecute discrimination in employment, voting and education. The law also ensured the right to vote and promised access to public accommodation.

Bloody Sunday

March 7, 1965

On March 7, 1965, in Selma, Alabama blacks marched to Montgomery in support of black voting rights. The protesters were stopped at a bridge by police who sent fifty protesters to the hospital after using tear gas, whips and clubs against them. "Bloody Sunday" was witnessed by many shocked people on TV and it was a big reason why the voting rights act was signed into law five months later.

Thurgood Marshall Becomes First Black Justice in Supreme Court

1967

In 1967 Thurgood Marshall became the first black justice in the Supreme Court. Marshall fought previously in the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case in 1954.

Blacks Holding Government Positions

1967

In 1967 Robert C. Weaver became the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. He was the first black to occupy a Cabinet position in American history.
In the same year Edward Brooke, a Massachusetts Republican, became the first black to hold a seat in the Senate since Reconstruction.

MLK Jr. Assassinated

April 4, 1968

On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on the balcony of a Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. Ironically blacks responded violently to his murder and began rioting across the nation again.