Father of modern philosophy. Had the worldview of "I think, therefore I am." Also believed that mathematics would provide a unity to all knowledge.
Criticized reason as a method of knowing truth and defended the centrality of human experience and feeling
First of the four crucial men that shape the Western culture and society. In "Confessions" (1782), he argued that the best education is virtually the absence of education. His concept of autonomous freedom led to the Bohemian ideal, in which the hero is the man who fights all of society's standards, values and restraints.
Second out of the four critical men that shape the Western culture and society. His book: "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781) and "Critique of Judgement" (1790) shaped the thought of this day
Understood the logical conclusion of this deification of nature. The nature result of this was his "sadism," his cruelty, especially to women.
Equated nature and truth, and to him, nature was God.
The third of the four significant men. Most important books: "The Phenomenology of Mind" (1807), "Science of Logic" (1812-16), "Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences" (1817), "Philosophy of Right" (1821)
His compositions reflected the emphasis of modern man on self-expression.
Were in the same stream as Wordsworth.
Found his values in man's instincts rather than in learning.
German Philosopher of materialism
The last of the four crucial men. Wrote both devotional and philosophical books. His worldview is that non-reason equals to faith-optimism, and reason equals to pessimism. Therefore, optimism will now always be in the area of non-reason.
"The poverty of the incapable... starvation of the idle and those shoulderings aside of the weak by the strong... are the decrees of a large, far-seeing benevolence."
French Chemist, demonstrated the impossibility of then-accepted concept of the spontaneous generation of life - that is, life springing from nonliving things.
Extended the theory of biological evolution to all of life, including ethics.
Wrote "Principles of Geology". In this book, he emphasized the uniformity of natural causes in the field of geology.
Rousseau's follower, French painter, and found that the ideal of the noble savage was illusory. Greatest painting: "Whence Come We? What Are We? Whither Do We Go?" (1897 & 1898)
German Physician, wrote the book: Force and Matter at this year
His most popular opera was titled "La Boheme" (1896). He led the culture to the hippie world in the 1960s.
Concept of "the survival of the fittest" in the book: "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle of Life'
English philosopher who believed that the final value is the biological continuity of the human race rather than holding on faith.
A biologist at the University of Jena, Wrote: "The Riddle of the Universe at the Close of the 19th Century"
Leader of the Gestapo, stated that the law of nature must take its course in the survival of the fittest.
A chemistry professor at Harvard University. Expressed that all things, including men, are merely the product of chance.
Summarizes Frederick Copleston's study of Hefel in Volume 7 of "A History of Philosophy" (1963). His concept is to find truth and moral rightness in the flow of history, a synthesis of them.