Major events and people in Tudor England from they year 1536 to 1588 for the Edexcel A2 Early Modern History Unit 3 (as of 2014). Dealing with the last 11 years of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and the first 30 years of Elizabeth I.
Last 11 years, full reign dates 1509 - 1547 (38 years)
Son of Henry VII. Known at the time as "Henry the Great". Famed for having six wives, two of whom he had beheaded as well as breaking with the Roman Catholic Church and forming what would become the Church of England.
Henry VIII's son. Came to the throne at the age of nine. Despite youth he showed increasing maturity as he grew older, so much so that it was agreed that he would obtained his Majority at the age of sixteen. He died at the age of fifteen, most likely due to Tuberculosis.
Edward Seymour, 1st Lord Protector of King Edward VI
John Dudley, 2nd Lord Protector of King Edward VI (Styled as Lord President)
Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Day Queen
Eldest Daughter of Henry VIII. Devout Catholic, remembered as "Bloody Mary" for her mass burning of Protestants. Tried to reintroduce Catholicism to England but died before her efforts could come to fruition, probably from ovarian cancer.
First 30 years, full reign dates 1558 - 1603 (45 years)
2nd Living Daughter of Henry VIII. She was the longest ruling Tudor monarch, her rule is remembered as "the Golden Age". She is known as "the Virgin Queen" because she never married
Henry VIII's eldest living,child. Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, his first wife. Deemed illegitimate due to the annulment of her parents' marriage, legitimised again due to birth of Edward (confirmed in 1546 with the Order of Succession). Later Queen Mary I. Devout Catholic.
Reformist, Henry VIII's 2nd Chief Minister. Titles included; The Earl of Essex, Lord Great Chamberlain, Vice-Gerent of the Spirituals. Arranged the marriage of Henry VIII to Anne of Cleaves. Fell out of favour with Henry, accused of treason and heresy by his enemies and executed in 1540
Thomas Howard, Catholic, member of the Conservative Faction
Catholic Bishop of Winchester
Henry VIII's second eldest living child. Daughter of Anne Boleyn, Henry's second wife. Later Queen Elizabeth I. Raised Protestant.
Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, author of the Bishops Book and the 1549 and 1552 Books of Common Prayer. Burned at the stake by Mary I for heresy.
Catholic but not vocal with her views. Mother of Edward VI, died shortly after his birth
Leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace
Henry VIII's only living, legitimate son and his third child. Son of Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife. Heir the throne, later King Edward VI. Devout Protestant.
Fifth wife of Henry VIII. Catholic, niece of the Duke of Norfolk. Intended as a strong Catholic influence over the King. Executed for treason and adultery.
Sixth and final wife of Henry VIII. Reformist, able to speak openly with Henry on religious matters and responsible for the Protestant upbringing of Prince Edward and Princess Elizabeth
John Dudley, later Duke of Northumberland and Lord Protector
Protestant tutor to Elizabeth I
Leader of Kett's rebellion
Leader of the Revolt of the Northern Earls
Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Canterbury. Accused of heresy and recalled to Rome to face charges. Died the same day as Mary I
Protestant claimant to the Throne through her maternal grandmother. Ruled for just nine days before being deposed. Executed after Wyatt's Rebellion to remove her as a potential rally figure
Leader of the Revolt of the Northern Earls
Leader of Wyatt's Rebellion
King Consort of England. Visited the country only twice. Brought Mary into wars with France. Helped improve the English navy.
Elizabeth 1st favouritve a believed to have been her lover. Fell out of favour after the suspicious death of his wife Amy in 1560, yet still maintained a good position. Died in 1588
Agreed with Elizabeth's personal beliefs
Leader of the Revolt of the Northern Earls
Spanish Ambassador to England
Catholic former Queen of Scotland. Claim to the Throne of England through her paternal grandmother
Spanish ambassador to England
Tudor Rebellions and Elizabethan Parliaments
Based on the North around Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. Catholic Rebels made mostly of commons but also involved gentry. Led by lawyer Robert Aske. Rose in opposition to the Reformation, mainly the Dissolution of the Monasteries. They were also in favour of removing Thomas Cromwell and other "evil councilors" as well as ensuring the rights of Princess Mary to be re-legitimised. Consised of 40,000 men, far larger than what Henry could prepare in time. Took Pontefract Castle, the Key to the North. Resolved with negotiations by the Duke of Norfolk where Henry agreed to talk with Robert Aske. The rebels dispersed. Another rebellion broke out later in the year. Robert Ask and other Pilgrim leaders were blamed and executed. Henry never complied with their demands.
Western: Rose in Cornwall and Devon in response to the new Prayer Book. Very outwardly Protestant but the main issue was that it was in English while the people of Cornwall spoke Cornish. Negotiations failed. Eventually came to Battle near Exeter where the rebellion was crushed.
Kett's: Based in East Anglia, concerned mostly with enclosure laws. Camped out in East Anglia. Commons' Revolt, rose when the Gentry were absent and refused any Gentry support. Negotiations failed but were crushed in Battle by the Earl of Warwick (future Duke of Northumberland)
Rose in response to Mary's marriage to Philip II. Threatened to depose Mary with Elizabeth. Battle happened, Norfolk retreated. Reached London but took stupid detour to take minor castle. Mary shut the gates. Thomas Wyatt was executed for his efforts
Revolt by Catholic Nobility in the North to depose Elizabeth I in favour of Mary Queen of Scots. Plan to Marry the Duke of Norfolk to Mary. Held a Catholic Mass at Durham Cathedral before marching south. They get as far as Bramham Moor (still in the North) before turning back, hoping to meet up with the Spanish at Knaresborough. The Spanish never arrive and the rebels flee further north, eventually seeking refuge in Scotland.
Mix of Protestant and Catholic doctrine. Sola Fide, purgatory discouraged. Vague on Transubstantiation and the Sacraments
The King's writ is now uniform throughout the country
Only the King could appoint JPs and Judges
The right of Sanctuary is abolished
The Prince-Bishop of Durham lost authority
Welsh shires could now elect one MP to the House of Commons and Welsh boroughs could vote in a second
Confirmed Transubstantiation and the Seven Sacraments along with other Catholic Doctrines
Cromwell accused of heresy by the Conservative Faction. Was imprisoned in the tower and later executed. His death marked the rise of the Conservative Faction. Cromwell would later become the only person Henry ever regretted executing.
Conservative Faction accused Cranmer of heresy. Henry gave Cranmer a ring as a sign of his trust in him to show in the case of attempted arrest. Cranmer maintained power
Conservatives accused Catherine Parr of heresy. Henry acquitted her after she pleaded for mercy. Henry dispelled the Earl of Southampton for his involvement.
Edward, Mary, Elizabeth (standard Primogeniture)
Son of the Duke of Norfolk. He was accused of treason because he proclaimed to be royal. His father was spared because Henry died before the sentence could be carried out
Edward Seymour defies Henry VIII's will for a regency council to rule in Edward VI's minority, and takes for himself the tile of Lord Protector as well as the Duke of Somerset
Somerset takes Edward VI to Windsor Castle: Suggestion of the King being held against his will. Somerset calls upon the House of Commons for support. He surrendered four days later
Set out the Doctrine of the Church of England, very Protestant, aurthorised by Cranmer
Replaced with Reginald Pole, a Catholic. Cranmer branded a heretic by Mary for his Protestant beliefs and imprisoned
For his involvement in the Lady Jane Grey plot
Child of Mary and Philip would inherit England and the Netherlands
Philip and his heirs would not gain a claim on the English Throne if Mary were to die before Philip
Philip gained the title King of England but had no sovereign power
Philip was not allowed to point foreign advisors in England
Same day as Mary I's death
Modified to be more of a "middle way" between Catholicism and Protestantism
Calais would remain French for seven years, but would be returned if the English did not bother France
Mysterious death of the wife of Robert Dudley put an end to all hopes Elizabeth might have had of marrying him
Massacre of French Hugenots, English intervned. French took it for invasion and Protestants and Catholics united to repel them Resulted in the final loss of Calais
Based largely on the Forty-Two Articles. Intended as a statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Roman Catholic Church. Forms the basis of the Modern Church of England doctrine.
Elizabeth seized Spanish Gold from ships docked in England on their way to the Netherlands
Elizabeth excommunicated by the Pope
Treaty with France in defense against Spain
Centre of trade in northern Europe
Treaty with the Dutch Rebels
Elizabeth declared Protector of the Netherlands
She sent 7000 troops under the Earl of Leicester to the Netherlands where they remained for the rest of her reign.
STATE OF WAR WITH SPAIN
Priests cannot marry
Jane Seymour, non-vocal
The Pilgrimage of Grace
Sir Francis Bigod's Rebellion
Opposition to the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Anne of Cleves: intended by Cromwell to unify Henry with Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire
Catherine Parr, able to discuss religious matters freely with the King
The Western Rebellion: Opposition to the 1549 Prayer Book in English, demand for Latin Mass and Bible
Cardinal Reginald Pole
Philip II of Spain
Effected Puritans who spread their faith through preaching
Some Catholic beliefs: clerical celibacy, decoration, vestments
with permission of 2 JPs - Elizabeth personally against it
Matthew Parker, Edmund Gridel and John Whitgift
Revolt of the Northern Earls threatened to depose Elizabeth in favour of Mary, Queen of Scots
King of Spain, Netherlands, Naples etc. King Consort of England from 1554 - 1556 as husband to Mary I. Proposed to Elizabeth I but was refused. Implicated in plots to remove and kill Elizabeth. Launched attempted invasion of England with the Spanish Armada in 1588 which failed.
1st husband of Mary Queen of Scots
Anti-Hapsburg, made the recovery of Cardinal Pole by Mary I difficult due to her marriage to Philip II who was a Hapsburg
AKA Mary Queen of Scots
Later James I of England