Tudor Timeline 1536 - 1588

Major events and people in Tudor England from they year 1536 to 1588 for the Edexcel A2 Early Modern History Unit 3 (as of 2014). Dealing with the last 11 years of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and the first 30 years of Elizabeth I.

Monarch of England

Henry VIII

1536 - 1547

Last 11 years, full reign dates 1509 - 1547 (38 years)

Son of Henry VII. Known at the time as "Henry the Great". Famed for having six wives, two of whom he had beheaded as well as breaking with the Roman Catholic Church and forming what would become the Church of England.

Edward VI

1547 - 6 July 1553

Henry VIII's son. Came to the throne at the age of nine. Despite youth he showed increasing maturity as he grew older, so much so that it was agreed that he would obtained his Majority at the age of sixteen. He died at the age of fifteen, most likely due to Tuberculosis.

Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset

1547 - 1549

Edward Seymour, 1st Lord Protector of King Edward VI

Death of Henry VIII

1547

John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland

1549 - 10 July 1553

John Dudley, 2nd Lord Protector of King Edward VI (Styled as Lord President)

Death of Edward VI

6 July 1553

Jane

10 July 1553 - 19 July 1553

Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Day Queen

Mary I

19 July 1553 - 1558

Eldest Daughter of Henry VIII. Devout Catholic, remembered as "Bloody Mary" for her mass burning of Protestants. Tried to reintroduce Catholicism to England but died before her efforts could come to fruition, probably from ovarian cancer.

Queen Jane deposed by Queen Mary I

19 July 1553

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1588

First 30 years, full reign dates 1558 - 1603 (45 years)
2nd Living Daughter of Henry VIII. She was the longest ruling Tudor monarch, her rule is remembered as "the Golden Age". She is known as "the Virgin Queen" because she never married

Death of Mary I

1558

Key Individuals

Princess Mary

1536 - 19 July 1553

Henry VIII's eldest living,child. Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, his first wife. Deemed illegitimate due to the annulment of her parents' marriage, legitimised again due to birth of Edward (confirmed in 1546 with the Order of Succession). Later Queen Mary I. Devout Catholic.

Anne Boleyn

1536 - May 1536

Thomas Cromwell

1536 - July 1540

Reformist, Henry VIII's 2nd Chief Minister. Titles included; The Earl of Essex, Lord Great Chamberlain, Vice-Gerent of the Spirituals. Arranged the marriage of Henry VIII to Anne of Cleaves. Fell out of favour with Henry, accused of treason and heresy by his enemies and executed in 1540

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

1536 - 1554

Thomas Howard, Catholic, member of the Conservative Faction

Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester

1536 - 1555

Catholic Bishop of Winchester

Princess Elizabeth

1536 - 1558

Henry VIII's second eldest living child. Daughter of Anne Boleyn, Henry's second wife. Later Queen Elizabeth I. Raised Protestant.

Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury

1536 - 1556

Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, author of the Bishops Book and the 1549 and 1552 Books of Common Prayer. Burned at the stake by Mary I for heresy.

Jane Seymour

May 1536 - 24 October 1537

Catholic but not vocal with her views. Mother of Edward VI, died shortly after his birth

Robert Aske

8 October 1536 - February 1537

Leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace

Prince Edward

12 October 1537 - 1547

Henry VIII's only living, legitimate son and his third child. Son of Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife. Heir the throne, later King Edward VI. Devout Protestant.

Anne of Cleves

January 1540 - May 1540

Catherine Howard

July 1540 - 1542

Fifth wife of Henry VIII. Catholic, niece of the Duke of Norfolk. Intended as a strong Catholic influence over the King. Executed for treason and adultery.

Catherine Parr

1543 - 1547

Sixth and final wife of Henry VIII. Reformist, able to speak openly with Henry on religious matters and responsible for the Protestant upbringing of Prince Edward and Princess Elizabeth

John Dudley, Earl of Warwick

1547 - 1549

John Dudley, later Duke of Northumberland and Lord Protector

Roger Ascham

1548 - 1568

Protestant tutor to Elizabeth I

Robert Kett

1549

Leader of Kett's rebellion

John Dudley

10 July 1553 - 22 August 1553

Thomas Percy, Earl of Northunberland

19 July 1553 - 1572

Leader of the Revolt of the Northern Earls

Cardinal Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury

19 July 1553 - 1558

Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Canterbury. Accused of heresy and recalled to Rome to face charges. Died the same day as Mary I

Lady Jane Grey

19 July 1553 - 1554

Protestant claimant to the Throne through her maternal grandmother. Ruled for just nine days before being deposed. Executed after Wyatt's Rebellion to remove her as a potential rally figure

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk

1554 - 1572

Leader of the Revolt of the Northern Earls

Thomas Wyatt

1554

Leader of Wyatt's Rebellion

Philip of Spain

1554 - 1558

King Consort of England. Visited the country only twice. Brought Mary into wars with France. Helped improve the English navy.

William Cecil, Lord of Burghley

1558 - 1588

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester

1558 - 1588

Elizabeth 1st favouritve a believed to have been her lover. Fell out of favour after the suspicious death of his wife Amy in 1560, yet still maintained a good position. Died in 1588

Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury

1559 - 1575

Agreed with Elizabeth's personal beliefs

Sir Francis Walsingham

1562 - 1588

Elizabeth's Spymaster

Charles Neville, Earl of Westorland

1564 - 1588

Leader of the Revolt of the Northern Earls

Guerau de Espes

1568 - 1571

Spanish Ambassador to England

Mary Queen of Scots

1569 - 1587

Catholic former Queen of Scotland. Claim to the Throne of England through her paternal grandmother

Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury

1576 - 1583

Puritan?

Mendoza

1579 - 1583

Spanish ambassador to England

John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury

1583 - 1588

Controversies

Tudor Rebellions and Elizabethan Parliaments

Lincolnshire Rising

1 October 1536 - 11 October 1536

Pilgrimage of Grace

8 October 1536 - 8 December 1536

Based on the North around Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. Catholic Rebels made mostly of commons but also involved gentry. Led by lawyer Robert Aske. Rose in opposition to the Reformation, mainly the Dissolution of the Monasteries. They were also in favour of removing Thomas Cromwell and other "evil councilors" as well as ensuring the rights of Princess Mary to be re-legitimised. Consised of 40,000 men, far larger than what Henry could prepare in time. Took Pontefract Castle, the Key to the North. Resolved with negotiations by the Duke of Norfolk where Henry agreed to talk with Robert Aske. The rebels dispersed. Another rebellion broke out later in the year. Robert Ask and other Pilgrim leaders were blamed and executed. Henry never complied with their demands.

Sir Francis Bigod's Rebellion

January 1537 - February 1537

Western Rebellion

1549

Western: Rose in Cornwall and Devon in response to the new Prayer Book. Very outwardly Protestant but the main issue was that it was in English while the people of Cornwall spoke Cornish. Negotiations failed. Eventually came to Battle near Exeter where the rebellion was crushed.

Kett's Rebellion

1549

Kett's: Based in East Anglia, concerned mostly with enclosure laws. Camped out in East Anglia. Commons' Revolt, rose when the Gentry were absent and refused any Gentry support. Negotiations failed but were crushed in Battle by the Earl of Warwick (future Duke of Northumberland)

Wyatt's Rebellion

1554

Rose in response to Mary's marriage to Philip II. Threatened to depose Mary with Elizabeth. Battle happened, Norfolk retreated. Reached London but took stupid detour to take minor castle. Mary shut the gates. Thomas Wyatt was executed for his efforts

Succession Parliament

January 1559 - May 1559

Parliament

January 1563 - April 1563

Parliament

September 1566 - January 1567

Revolt of the Northern Earls

1569

Revolt by Catholic Nobility in the North to depose Elizabeth I in favour of Mary Queen of Scots. Plan to Marry the Duke of Norfolk to Mary. Held a Catholic Mass at Durham Cathedral before marching south. They get as far as Bramham Moor (still in the North) before turning back, hoping to meet up with the Spanish at Knaresborough. The Spanish never arrive and the rebels flee further north, eventually seeking refuge in Scotland.

Parliament

April 1571 - May 1571

Parliament

February 1576 - March 1576

Netherlands Parliament

November 1584 - March 1585

Armada Parliament

October 1586 - March 1587

Events

Ten Articles

1536

Mix of Protestant and Catholic doctrine. Sola Fide, purgatory discouraged. Vague on Transubstantiation and the Sacraments

Act for Resuming Certain Liberties to the Crown

1536

The King's writ is now uniform throughout the country
Only the King could appoint JPs and Judges
The right of Sanctuary is abolished
The Prince-Bishop of Durham lost authority

Marriage to Anne Boleyn

1536 - May 1536

Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536

Act of Laws and Justice

1536

Welsh shires could now elect one MP to the House of Commons and Welsh boroughs could vote in a second

Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries

1536

Marriage to Jane Seymour

May 1536 - 24 October 1537

Execution of Anne Boleyn

May 1536

Execution of Robert Aske

February 1537

Birth of Prince Edward

12 October 1537

Death of Jane Seymour

24 October 1537

Act of Six Articles

1539

Confirmed Transubstantiation and the Seven Sacraments along with other Catholic Doctrines

Dissolution of the Greater Monasteries

1539

Marriage of Anne of Cleaves

January 1540 - May 1540

Marriage to Anne of Cleves Annulled

May 1540

Execution of Thomas Cromwell

July 1540

Cromwell accused of heresy by the Conservative Faction. Was imprisoned in the tower and later executed. His death marked the rise of the Conservative Faction. Cromwell would later become the only person Henry ever regretted executing.

Marriage to Catherine Howard

July 1540 - 1542

Execution of Catherine Howard

1542

Marriage to Catherine Parr

1543 - 1547

Attack on Thomas Cranmer

1543

Conservative Faction accused Cranmer of heresy. Henry gave Cranmer a ring as a sign of his trust in him to show in the case of attempted arrest. Cranmer maintained power

War with Scotland

1544 - 1550

War with France

1544 - 1546

Attack of Catherine Parr

1546

Conservatives accused Catherine Parr of heresy. Henry acquitted her after she pleaded for mercy. Henry dispelled the Earl of Southampton for his involvement.

Henry confirmed the order of succession

1546

Edward, Mary, Elizabeth (standard Primogeniture)

Execution of Earl of Surrey

1547

Son of the Duke of Norfolk. He was accused of treason because he proclaimed to be royal. His father was spared because Henry died before the sentence could be carried out

Edward Seymour becomes Lord Protector

1547

Edward Seymour defies Henry VIII's will for a regency council to rule in Edward VI's minority, and takes for himself the tile of Lord Protector as well as the Duke of Somerset

Dissolution of the Chantries

1547

Duke of Somerset imprisoned

1549

Somerset takes Edward VI to Windsor Castle: Suggestion of the King being held against his will. Somerset calls upon the House of Commons for support. He surrendered four days later

1st Book of Common Prayer

1549

John Dudley Becomes Lord President

1549

2nd Book of Common Prayer

1552

Execution of the Duke of Somerset

1552

Forty-Two Articles

1552

Set out the Doctrine of the Church of England, very Protestant, aurthorised by Cranmer

Lady Jane Grey Plot

10 July 1553

Restoration of Papal Authority

19 July 1553

Cranmer removed as Archbishop of Canterbury

Approx. 19 July 1553

Replaced with Reginald Pole, a Catholic. Cranmer branded a heretic by Mary for his Protestant beliefs and imprisoned

Execution of John Dudley

22 August 1553

For his involvement in the Lady Jane Grey plot

Death of the 3rd Duke of Norfolk

1554

Marriage to Philip II of Spain

1554 - 1558

Marriage Contract:
Child of Mary and Philip would inherit England and the Netherlands
Philip and his heirs would not gain a claim on the English Throne if Mary were to die before Philip
Philip gained the title King of England but had no sovereign power
Philip was not allowed to point foreign advisors in England

Execution of Lady Jane Grey

1554

Cardinal Pole accused of Heresy and recalled to Rome

1555

Death of Stephen Gardiner

1555

Execution of Thomas Cranmer

1556

Loss of Calais

1558

Death of Cardinal Pole

1558

Same day as Mary I's death

Act of Uniformity

1559

Elizabethan Settlement

1559 - 1566

1552 Prayer Books Reintroduced

1559

Modified to be more of a "middle way" between Catholicism and Protestantism

Treaty of Cateau Cambresis

1559

Calais would remain French for seven years, but would be returned if the English did not bother France

Act of Supremacy

1559

Death of Amy Dudley

1560

Mysterious death of the wife of Robert Dudley put an end to all hopes Elizabeth might have had of marrying him

Le Havre Massacre

1562

Massacre of French Hugenots, English intervned. French took it for invasion and Protestants and Catholics united to repel them Resulted in the final loss of Calais

Thirty-Nine Articles

1563

Based largely on the Forty-Two Articles. Intended as a statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Roman Catholic Church. Forms the basis of the Modern Church of England doctrine.

Vestarian Controversy

1566

Gold Bullion Affair

1568

Elizabeth seized Spanish Gold from ships docked in England on their way to the Netherlands

Mary Queen of Scots arrives in England

1569

Regens in Excelsis

1570

Elizabeth excommunicated by the Pope

Death of Espes

1571

Ridolfi Plot

1571

Execution of the 4th Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Northumberland

1572

Treaty of Blois

1572

Treaty with France in defense against Spain

Sack of Antwerp

1576

Centre of trade in northern Europe

Throckmorton Plot

1583

Assassination of William of Orange

1584

Treaty of Nonsuch

1585

Treaty with the Dutch Rebels
Elizabeth declared Protector of the Netherlands
She sent 7000 troops under the Earl of Leicester to the Netherlands where they remained for the rest of her reign.
STATE OF WAR WITH SPAIN

War with Spain

1585 - 1588

Babington Plot

1586

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1587

Spanish Armada

1588

Religion

Ambiguous

1530

Colour Key

Protestant

1530

Colour Key

Catholic

1530

Colour Key

External Influence

1530

Colour Key

Transubstantiation Confirmed

1536 - 1549

Four Sacraments

1536 - 1539

Greater Monasteries Only

1536 - 1539

Bible in English

1536 - 19 July 1553

Royal Supremacy

1536 - 19 July 1553

Clerical Celibacy

1536 - 1549

Priests cannot marry

Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury

1536 - 19 July 1553

Thomas Cranmer

Church Hierarchy

1536 - 1588

King's beliefs uncertain

1536 - 1547

Royal Marriage to a Catholic

May 1536 - 24 October 1537

Jane Seymour, non-vocal

Catholic Revolts

1 October 1536 - February 1537

Lincolnshire Rising
The Pilgrimage of Grace
Sir Francis Bigod's Rebellion
Opposition to the Dissolution of the Monasteries

Henry VIII Excommunicated

1538 - 1547

No Monasteries

1539 - 1588

Seven Sacraments

1539 - 1549
  1. Baptism
  2. Confirmation
  3. Communion
  4. Confession
  5. Marriage
  6. Last Rites
  7. Holy Orders

Royal Marriage to a Protestant

January 1540 - May 1540

Anne of Cleves: intended by Cromwell to unify Henry with Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire

Royal Marriage to a Catholic

July 1540 - 1542

Catherine Howard

Royal Marriage to a Protestant

1543 - 1547

Catherine Parr, able to discuss religious matters freely with the King

Protestant King

1547 - 6 July 1553

Edward VI

No Chantries

1547 - 1588

Catholic Revolt

1549

The Western Rebellion: Opposition to the 1549 Prayer Book in English, demand for Latin Mass and Bible

Transubstantiation Vague

1549 - 1552

Three Sacraments*

1549 - 19 July 1553
  1. Baptism
  2. Marriage
  3. Communion *Confession Disputed

Transubstantiation Denied

1552 - 19 July 1553

Protestant Queen

10 July 1553 - 19 July 1553

Jane Grey

Catholic Queen

19 July 1553 - 1558

Mary I

Seven Sacraments

19 July 1553 - 1558

Papal Supremacy

19 July 1553 - 1558

Heresy Laws

19 July 1553 - 1558

Latin Mass

19 July 1553 - 1558

Attempts to restore the monasteries

19 July 1553 - 1558

Failed

Transubstantiation Confirmed

19 July 1553 - 1558

Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury

19 July 1553 - 1558

Cardinal Reginald Pole

Clerical Celibacy

19 July 1553 - 1559

Royal Marriage to a Catholic

1554 - 1558

Philip II of Spain

Anti-Hapsburg Pope

May 1555 - 1558

Ban of Preaching

1558 - 1559

Effected Puritans who spread their faith through preaching

Royal Supremacy

1558 - 1588

Protestant Queen

1558 - 1588

Elizabeth I
Mostly Protestant
Some Catholic beliefs: clerical celibacy, decoration, vestments

Clerical Marriage allowed*

1559 - 1588

with permission of 2 JPs - Elizabeth personally against it

Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury

1559 - 1588

Matthew Parker, Edmund Gridel and John Whitgift

No Specification on Ornamentation

1559 - 1588

Communion in both kinds

1559 - 1588

Transubstantiation Vague

1559 - 1588

English Liturgy

1559 - 1588

Catholic Revolt

1569

Revolt of the Northern Earls threatened to depose Elizabeth in favour of Mary, Queen of Scots

Elizabeth Excommunicated

1570 - 1588

Monarch of Spain

Charles V

1536 - 1556

Philip II

1556 - 1588

King of Spain, Netherlands, Naples etc. King Consort of England from 1554 - 1556 as husband to Mary I. Proposed to Elizabeth I but was refused. Implicated in plots to remove and kill Elizabeth. Launched attempted invasion of England with the Spanish Armada in 1588 which failed.

Monarch of France

Francis I

1536 - 1547

Henry II

1547 - 1559

Francis II

1559 - 1560

1st husband of Mary Queen of Scots

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Henry III

1574 - 1588

Ruler of the Netherlands

Charles V

1536 - 1556

Philip II

1556 - 1588

William of Orange

1568 - 1584

Pope

Paul III

1536 - November 1549

Julius III

February 1550 - March 1555

Marcellus II

April 1555 - May 1555

Paul IV

May 1555 - 1559

Anti-Hapsburg, made the recovery of Cardinal Pole by Mary I difficult due to her marriage to Philip II who was a Hapsburg

Pius IV

1559 - December 1565

Pius V

1566 - 1572

Gregory XIII

1572 - 1585

Sixtus V

1585 - 1588

Monarch of Scotland

James V

1536 - 1542

Mary I

1542 - 1567

AKA Mary Queen of Scots

James VI

1567 - 1588

Later James I of England

Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V

1536 - 1558

Ferdinand I

1558 - 1564

Maximilian II

1564 - 1576

Rudolf II

1576 - 1588