Cold War

Main

United States President

Franklin D. Roosevelt

March 4 1933 - April 12 1945

Harry S. Truman

April 12 1945 - January 20 1953

Dwight D Eisenhower

January 20 1953 - January 20 1961

John F. Kennedy

January 20 1961 - November 22 1963

Lyndon B. Johnson

November 22 1963 - January 20 1969

Richard Nixon

January 20 1969 - August 9 1974

Gerald Ford

August 9 1974 - January 20 1977

Jimmy Carter

January 20 1977 - January 20 1981

Ronald Reagan

January 20 1981 - January 20 1989

George H. W. Bush

January 20 1989 - January 20 1993

Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Joseph Stalin

3 April 1922 - 5 March 1953

Nikita Khrushchev

14 September 1953 - 14 October 1964

Leonid Brezhnev

14 October 1964 - 10 November 1982

Yuri Andropov

12 November 1982 - 9 February 1984

Konstantin Chernenko

13 February 1984 - 10 March 1985

Mikhail Gorbachev

11 March 1985 - 24 August 1991

Boris Yeltsin

July 10 1991 - August 9 1996

Period

Detente

1969 - December 1979

Second Cold War

December 1979 - 1985

Arms Race

Hiroshima Bombing

6 August 1945

Nagasaki Bombing

9 August 1945

Soviet Union becomes world's second nuclear power

August 29 1949

UK world's third nuclear power

October 2 1952

US tests first thermonuclear bomb

November 1 1952

Word's first nuclear submarine launched (USS Nautilus)

January 21 1954

Strategic Air Command initiates 24/7 nuclear alert

October 1 1957

Sputnik launched

October 4 1957

Sputnik 2 launched with first living being

November 3 1957

Kitchen Debate

July 24 1959

France becomes fourth nuclear power

February 16 1960

Successful launch of Vostok 1 (first human in space)

April 12 1961

Soviet Union detonates the most powerful thermonuclear weapon ever tested

October 31 1961

Partial Test Ban Treaty

July 25 1963

US and USSR announce simultaneous plans to cut production of nuclear missiles

April 20 1964

China becomes the world's fifth nuclear power

October 16 1964

Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty Enters into force

March 5 1970

SALT I

May 26 1972

Apollo -Soyuz Test Project

July 1975

It is the first join flight of the US and Soviet space programs. The mission is seen as a symbol of detente and an end to the space race.

Salt II signed

June 18 1979

SDI proposed

March 23 1983

USSR declares a 5 month unilateral moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons

August 6 1985

Coinciding with the 40th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet Union begins what it has announced is a 5-month unilateral moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The Reagan administration dismisses the dramatic move as nothing more than propaganda and refuses to follow suit. Gorbachev declares several extensions, but the United States fails to reciprocate, and the moratorium comes to an end on February 5, 1987.

Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty signed in Washington

December 9 1987

Regional Bodies

NATO founded

April 4 1949

European Coal and Steel Community Formed

April 18 1951

Greece and Turkey join NATO

February 18 1952

SEATO

September 8 1954 - June 1974

Non Aligned Movement Begins

April 1955

West Germany joins NATO and begins rearmament

May 9 1955

Warsaw Pact founded

May 14 1955

France withdraws from NATO command structure

March 10 1967

Spain joins NATO

may 20 1982

Exercise Able Archer 83

November 2 1983

Warsaw Pact formally disolved

July 1991

Ideology

Stalin's Election Speech

February 9 1946

He states that capitalism and imperialism make future wars inevitable.

Long Telegram

22 February 1946

Iron Curtain Speech

March 5 1946

Novikov Telegram

September 27 1946

Nikolai Vaslievich Novikov writes a response to Kennan's telegram in which he states that the United States are "striving for world supremacy"

Red Scare

1947 - 1954

Rosenberg Trial

March 29 1951

Senator Joseph McCarthy Charges that communists have infiltrated the CIA

June 2 1954

United States and its allies boycott 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow

March 21 1980

Reagan labels Soviet Union as an "Evil Empire"

March 8 1983

Allies of the Soviet Union boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles

July 28 1984

Conferences / Summits

The Tehran Conference

28 November 1943 - 1 December 1943

The Yalta Conference

February 4 1945 - February 11 1945

The Potsdam Conference

17 July 1945 - 2 August 1945

Geneva Summit

July 18 1955

Vienna Summit

June 4 1961

Four Power Agreement on Berlin

September 3 1971

Paris Peace Accords

January 27 1973

End American involvement in Vietnam

Helsinki Accords

August 1 1975

Geneva Summit

November 21 1985

Reykjavik Summit

October 11 1986

Malta Summit

December 3 1989

At the end of the Malta Summit, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and US President George H. W. Bush declare that a long-lasting era of peace has begun. Many observers regard this summit as the official beginning of the end of the Cold War.

Leaders

Election of Syngman Rhee in South Korea

May 10 1948

Konrad Adenauer Chancellor of FDR

September 15 1949

Mao Zedong declares the People's Republic of China

October 1 1949

Eisenhower becomes President of the United States

January 20 1953

Stalin dies

March 5 1953

Iranian Prime Minister ousted in CIA coup

August 19 1953

Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of the Soviet Union

September 7 1953

Elected leftist Guatemalan government overthrown in CIA coup

June 18 1954

John F Kennedy becomes President of the United States

January 20 1961

South Vietnamese Prime Minister assassinated in CIA coup

November 2 1963

John F Kennedy Assasinated

November 22 1963

Lyndon Johnson becomes President of the United States

November 22 1963

Leonid Brezhnev succeeds Khrushchev

October 14 1964

Richard Nixon becomes President of the United States

January 20 1969

Gerald Ford becomes President of the United States

August 9 1974

Death of Mao Zedong

September 9 1976

Jimmy Carter becomes President of the United States

January 20 1977

Marxist Sandinistas overthrow US backed Somoza Dictatorship in Nicaragua

July 17 1979

Josip Broz Tito dies

May 4 1980

Ronald Reagan becomes United States President

January 20 1981

Death of Brezhnev

November 10 1982

Yuri Andropov succeeds Brezhnev

November 14 1982

Konstantin Chemenko succeeds Andropov

February 13 1984

Mikhail Gorbachev succeeds Chernenko

March 11 1985

George Bush Senior becomes United States President

January 20 1989

Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia

May 29 1990

Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as President of the USSR

December 25 1991

Germany

Creation of German BIzonia

January 1 1947

US announces new occupation policies in Germany

July 11 1947

The occupation directive JCS 1067, whose economic section had prohibited "steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany [or] designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy", is replaced by the new US occupation directive JCS 1779 which instead notes that "An orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany."

Deutsche Mark is launched in Bizonia and French Zone

June 21 1948

Berlin Blockade

June 24 1948 - May 11 1949

Federal Republic of Germany Founded

May 23 1949

German Democratic Republic declared by Soviets

October 7 1949

Start of the second Berlin Crisis

November 1958

Berlin Wall built

August 13 1961

Collapse of the Berlin Wall

November 9 1989

Revolutions of Eastern Europe: Soviet reforms and their state of bankruptcy have allowed Eastern Europe to rise up against the Communist governments there. The Berlin Wall is breached when Politburo spokesman, Günter Schabowski, not fully informed of the technicalities or procedures of the newly agreed lifting of travel restrictions, mistakenly announces at a news conference in East Berlin that the borders have been opened.

Germany is reunified

October 3 1990

USSR

Communist Control of Czechoslovakia

February 25 1948

Expulsion of Yugoslavia from COMINFORM

June 28 1948

Soviet Union Declares North Korea to be legitimate

September 9 1948

Soviet Union and China sign pact of mutual defence

February 16 1950

Khrushchev delivers the speech "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences"

February 25 1956

De-stalinization begins

Hungarian Revolution

October 23 1956

Sino-Soviet split

June 1960

Hotline between US and USSR set up

June 20 1963

Prague Spring

August 20 1968

Soviet Union invades Afghanistan

December 24 1979

Korean Air Lines Flight 007 show down by Soviet interceptor

September 1 1983

Chernobyl Disaster

April 26 1986

Soviet begins withdrawing from Afghanistan

May 15 1988

Gorbachev announces USSR will no longer militarily interfere with Eastern Europe

December 7 1988

Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan

February 2 1989

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

December 26 1991

The Council of Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR recognizes the dissolution of the Soviet Union and decides to dissolve itself.

US

Truman Doctrine

March 12 1947

Conception of the Marshall Plan

June 5 1947

Implementation of the Marshall Plan

April 3 1948 - June 30 1952

Containment of Communism in Greece

October 16 1949

NSC-68 Issued

April 17 1950

Douglas MacArthur fired

April 11 1951

Truman signs the Mutual Security Act

October 10 1951

Eisenhower Doctrine

January 5 1957

US reconnaissance C-130 airplane show down

September 1958

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17 1961 - April 19 1961

Hotline between US and USSR set up

June 20 1963

Gulf of Tonkin incident leads to US open involvement in Vietnam War

August 4 1964

US forces invade Dominican Republic

April 28 1965

Tet Offensive in South Vietnam begins

January 30 1968

Nixon visits China

February 21 1972

President Carter first supports anti-communist Mujahadeen in Afghanistan

July 3 1979

Iran hostage crisis

November 4 1979 - January 20 1981

CIA begins to support anti Sandinista Contras

November 23 1981

Ronald Reagan sings P.L 97-157

March 22 1982

Denounces the government of the Soviet Union should cease its abuses on the basic human rights of its citizens.

US forces invade Grenada

October 25 1983

Ronald Reagan challenges Gorbachev to "tear down this wall" (Berlin Wall)

June 12 1987

George Bush delivers a Christmas Day speech (The end of the Cold War)

December 25 1991

International

The Potsdam Agreement

August 2 1945

Japanese Surrender

September 2 1945

Division of Austria

January 7 1946

Reconstituted with its 1937 borders, but divided into four zones of control.

North Korea invades South Korea

June 25 1950 - July 27 1953

United Nations forces engage North Korean forces for the first time

July 4 1950

United Nations forces cross the 38th parallel

October 2 1950

China intervenes in Korea

October 22 1950

38th Parallel final dividing line

March 14 1951

Armistice Agreement ends fighting in Korean War

July 27 1953

Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal

July 26 1956

Communist insurgency begins in South Vietnam

December 1956

Cuban Revolution

January 1 1959

Formation of the VNL (Viet Cong)

December 1959

U-2 spy plane shot down with Francis Gary Powers

May 1 1960

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 16 1962

People's Republic of China recognized by UN

October 25 1971

Chilean Coup

September 11 1973

North Vietnam wins war creating an all communist country

April 30 1975

Iranian Revolution

January 16 1979

Pope John Paul II begins visit to native Poland

June 7 1979

Margret Thatcher meets with Gorbachev at Chequers

December 16 1984

INF Treaty Ratified

May 29 1988

When asked if he still believes that the Soviet Union is still an evil empire, Reagan replies he was talking about "another time, another era."

Tiananmen Square Massacre

June 4 1989

Solidarity Trade Union takes power in Poland

June 4 1989

Hungarian Constitution amended

October 18 1989

The Hungarian constitution is amended to allow a multi-party political system and free elections. The nearly 20-year rule of communist leader Erich Honecker comes to an end in East Germany.

Romanian Revolution

December 16 1989 - December 25 1989

Romanian Revolution: Rioters overthrow the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu, executing him and his wife, Elena. Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country to violently overthrow its Communist regime or to execute its leaders.

Iraq invades Kuwait, Gulf War

August 2 1990 - February 28 1991

Conflicts

Korean War

20 June 1950 - 27 July 1953

Vietnam War

December 1956 - 30 April 1975

USSR war in Afghanistan

December 1979 - February 1989