AP European

Power Struggles of the 18th Century

War of Austrian Succession

1740

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

American Revolution

1765 - 1783

First partition of Poland

1772

second partition of Poland

1793

third partition of Poland

1795

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Copernicus publishes "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"

1543

Versalius publishes "The Structure of the Human Body"

1543

Kepler publishes his first two laws of planetary motion

1609

Bacon publishes "Novum Organum"

1620

Harvey publishes "On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals"

1628

Galileo publishes "Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World"

1632

Descartes publishes "Discourse on Method"

1637

Newton publishes "Principia Mathematica"

1686

Locke publishes "Essay Concerning Human Understanding..."

1690

Montesquieu publishes "The Spirit of Laws"

1748

Voltaire publishes "Candide"

1759

Rousseau publishes "Emile & The Social Contract"

1762

Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

1776

Hutton publishes "The Theory of the Earth"

1788

Art of 1700-1900

Peter Paul Rubens begins painting in Antwerp

1603

Bernini becomes the architect of Rome's St. Peter's

1626

Milton publishes "Paradise Lost"

1667

Daniel Defoe publishes "Robinson Crusoe"

1719

Johnathan Swift publishes "Gullivar's Travels"

1726

Alexander Pope publishes "Essay on Man"

1737

Handel's "Messiah" has its first performance

1742

Bach composes "St. Matthew Passion"

1743 - 1746

Mozart's opera "The Marriage of Figaro" has its first performance

1786

The French Revolution

Reign of King Louis XVI

May 10, 1774 - September 21, 1792

Louis XVI summons Estates Genral

May 5, 1789

National Assembly begins

June 13, 1789

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

Great Fear

July 17, 1789 - August 3, 1789

Approval of the Dec. Rights of Man

August 26, 1789

Const. of 1791 establishes a constitutional monarchy

September 3, 1791

Legislative Assembly convenes

Oct. 1, 1791 - Sept. 1792

National Convention abolishes monarchy

September 21, 1792

Deposing of Louis XVI

Sept. 21, 1792

King Louis XVI is executed

Jan. 21, 1793

National Convention drafts the Constitution of 1795

Aug. 22, 1795

Reign of Terror begins

Sept. 5, 1795

The Directory begins to rule France

Nov. 2, 1795

Napoleon seizes power

May 18, 1804

Napoleon, France, and Europe

The Concordant of 1801

July 1801

Napoleon becomes first consul for life

1803

The War of the Third Coalition is fought

1803 - 1806

Napoleon’s code of civic law takes effect

1804

Napoleon becomes emperor

December 2, 1804

Napoleon establishes the Continental System

1806

Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeat Napoleon in the Battle of the Nations

October, 1813

Napoleon abdicates and is exiled on Elba

May, 1814

Napoleon returns to power, beginning the Hundred Days

March, 1815 - July, 1815

Napoleon dies on Saint Helena

1821

The Congress of Vienna and the Convert of Europe

first Treaty of Paris establishes lenient peace for France

1814

Congress of Vienna

1814

The Holy Alliance is established

1815

Greeks begin a revolt against Turkish rule

1821

Monroe Doctrine is issued

1823

Belgium secures independence

1830

Greek independence from Ottoman Empire

1832

Romanticism

Kant publishes "Critique of Pure Reason"

1781

Grimm brothers publish their collection of German folk tales

1812

Victor Hugo publishes "Notre Dame de Paris"

1831

Dumas publishes "The Three Musketeers"

1844

Wagner’s "Ring of Nibelung" has its first performance

1869

Reform and Revolution in Great Britain and France

Bourbon Restoration in France

1814 - 1830

Peterloo Massacre in Manchester

1819

Reign of George IV of Great Britain

1820 - 1830

Reign of King Charles X of France

1824 - 1830

Reign of King William IV of Great Britain

1830 - 1837

Reign of King Louis Philippe of France

1830 - 1848

French July Revolution

1830

Reform Bill of 1832

1832

Queen Victoria of Great Britain

1837 - 1901

French February Revolution

1845

British Parliament repeals the Corn Laws

1846

Conservative Order in Central and Eastern Europe

Reign of Francis I of Austria

1792 - 1835

Reign of Frederick William III of Prussia

1797 - 1840

Reign of Alexander I of Russia

1801 - 1825

Carlsbad Decrees

1819

Reign of Metternich of Austria

1821 - 1848

Decembrist Revolt of Russia

1825

Alexander Herzen establishes Kolokol

1831

Giuseppe Mazzini establishes Young Italy

1831

Reign of Ferdinand I of Austria

1835 - 1848

Reign of William IV of Prussia

1840 - 1861

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions

Newcomen steam engine is first used

1712

Kay invents the flying shuttle

1733

Hargreaces invents the spinning jenny

1764

Arkwright patents the water frame

1769

Watt patents his more efficient steam engine

1781

Cartwright patents a power loom

1785

Whitney patents his cotton gin

1794

Fulton’s steamboat, the Clermont, first goes into service

1807

Stephenson’s locomotive, the Rocket, operates successfully

1829

Cyrus McCormick patents the reaper

1834

Cunard begins regular transatlantic steamship passenger service

1840

Morse invents the telegraph

1844

Cyrus Field lays the first successful transatlantic cable

1854

Bessemer develops the Bessemer converter

1855

Bell invents the telephone

1876

Edison invents incandescent light

1879

Diesel patents the diesel engine

1894

Marconi transmits a wireless message across the English Channel

1899

Wright brothers make the first successful airplane flights

1903

Liberalism and Socialism

Ricardo publishes The Principles of "Political Economy and Taxation"

1817

Owen establishes New Harmony in Indiana

1820

Count of Saint-Simon publishes "The New Christianity"

1825

Blanc publishes "The Organization of Work"

1839

Proudhon publishes "What is Property?"

1840

John Stuart Mill publishes "Principles of Political Economy"

1848

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles publish "The Communist Manifest"

1848

John Stuart Mill publishes "On Liberty"

1869

"Das Kapital" is first published

1872

Pope Leo XIII issues the encyclical "Rerum Novarum"

1891

Revolutions of 1848

Overthrow of Louis Philippe

Feb. 1848

February

Revolution breaks out in Vienna, Metternich's resignation

Mar. 1848

March

German National Assembly begins its deliberations in Frankfurt

May, 1848

radical workers in Paris rise up and revolt

June, 1848

Austrian forces crush Czech revolution

Aug. 1848

Ferdinand I abdicates

Dec. 1848

German National Assembly completes its draft of a constitution for Germany

Mar. 1849

Frederick William IV declines the crown of German emperor

April, 1849

Hungarian Republic established

April, 1849

Hungarian revolt crushed

Aug. 1849