The Progressive Era 1901 - 1920

"Strengthen the government" "use government as an agency of human welfare"

People

Carrie Nation

1900

Advocating for a ban of alcohol.
Would go into bars and destroy furniture with a hatchet.

Theodore Roosevelt

1901

Wants to fix the US using progresivism
Gets in by being VP when McKinly dies
Uses the Square Deal to try and give equality to the people
Gives up presidency to VP to go hunt big animals

William Taft

1908

The Trust-Buster
Angers Roosevelt by going after JP Morgan US Steel a good trust

Splits republicans on the tarrif

Picks Ballinger vs. Pinchot and supports conrporation

The New Freedom

1912

Tearing down the triple wall of privilege
TRUSTS, TARIFFS, THE BANKS

Underwood Tariff

1913

Substantially reduced import fees

Federal Reserve Act

1913

In a sense a 3rd BUS, that would allow substantial public control of the nations financial system. A national paper currency. Banks borrow money from government for very low rates and then charge people 4% interest. When the economy is good interest is high

1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act

1914

Redefined the Sherman Anti-Trust act of 1890
Exempted unions and eliminated interlocking directorates

Events

Insular Cases

1898

Constitution does not follow the flag. Islands and territories not a part of the USA do not get the constitutional rights.

1901 - 1912 Square Deal

1901

Republican Reform Under Roosevelt
Three C's
*Control of the corporations
*Consumer protection
*Conservation of natural resources

Pennsylvania Coal Strike

1902

The coal miners strike and Roosevelt sends in national guardsman to threaten the coal miners with the threat of nationalization of the company to get them to negotiate. This was completely different than expected for a republican making Roosevelt a popular president.

Northern Securities Company

1903

Roosevelt attacked the Northern Securities Company, a major holding of JP Morgan. Supreme court backed up Roosevelt in all trust busting. He did let good trusts off the hook if they were creating efficiency and helping the consumer.

Election of 1904

1904

Republican Theodore Roosevelt wins vs Democratic Parker

Election of 1908

1908

Republican Taft Winner Vs. Democratic Bryan

Election of 1912

1912

Democrat Wilson Winner vs. Progressive T. Roosevelt vs Republican Taft

Roosevelt split the republican party causing them to lose

17th Amendment: The direct election of Senators

1913

Lets people elect state senators

16th Amendment: Congress has the power to collect income tax

1913

Espionage Act

1917

the Espionage Act essentially made it a crime for any person to convey information intended to interfere with the U.S. armed forces prosecution of the war effort or to promote the success of the country's enemies.

Sedition Act

1918

It forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt.

18th Amendment: National Prohibition

1919

19th Amendment: Woman's Suffrage

1920

Women can vote

Notes

Yellow Journalists

1900

Just report on things observed in society.

Progressive vs. Populist

1900

Progressive = Middle - Upper Class americans usually in an urban setting straddling both democrats and republicans
Populists = poor farmers known to be radical and almost always democratic.

Role of the Muckrakers

1900

Muckrakers are the journalists who are investigating and writing about the problems in the US such as the dangers and practices of big companies. Upton Sinclairs The Jungle brings about The Meat Inspection Act and The Pure Food and Drug Act

Problems to Fix

1901

Environmental Destruction
-mines
-trees
Child Labor, Labor Safety
-harsh working conditions Immigrant Assimilation
-NA Trusts/Monopolies
-Control government
-fix prices
Corruption
-government supports rich Consumer Safety
-quality checks
-bad products
-shoddy building

Challenges to economic theory

1901

Gospel of Wealth (Wealth should be shared by rish) VS. Social Gospel (Government should regulate)

Driving Force behind the progressives

1901

Using Social Gospel provide people a level playing field to climb up the ladder. Government makes a ladder.

Conservation of Natural Resources

1903

Conservation vs. Preservation
Worry about the disappearance of the frontier
Jack Londons Call of the Wild
John Muir supports preservation and started the sierra club
Gifford Pinchot supports conservation (use and replenish) Head of the national forest service
Ballinger supports no regulation (no one cares)
Gifford Wins
Boy Scouts
Roosevelts End