New Nation States and Nationalist Tensions

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Cavour urged the king to issue a constitution...

1848

Cavour urged the king to issue a constitution, sponsored liberals, worked to end Austrian rule in Northern Italy

Cavour pursued expelled Austrians from Milan and Veneto

1858

Cavour pursued expelled Austrians from Milan and Veneto, but now with the aim of enhancing the power of King Victor Emmanuel II

First Lombardy

1859

Were ceded to Austria by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardina

Napoleon agreed to help Pirdmont drive Austria out of Northern Italy

1859

Napoleon agreed to help Pirdmont drive Austria out of Northern Italy. The Prime minister, Camille Cavour, saw the allience with France as a means to position his state in the future of Italy

Napoleon III supported an Idea of an Italian state

1859

Napoleon III supported an Idea of an Italian state in the hopes of strengthening French influence

Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Tuscany, and Parma joined the region of Piedmont

1860

By 1860 the entire Italian peninsula except for Veneto in the north and the Papal States around Rome were under the rule of Victor Emmanuel II

Victor Emmanuel crowned king

1861

King William I was in a dispute with the Landtag over the state budget

1862

Particularly for the Prussian Army, he posted Bismarck as chancellor hoping that he would be able to find a compromise

Austrian and Prussian troops invaded Schleswig

1864

Austrian and Prussian troops invaded Schleswig forcing the king of Denmark to withdraw his claims

Veneto

1866

Were ceded to Austria by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardina

Most subjects of Victor Emmanuel didn't speak standard Italian

1870

The Papal States and Veneto joined under the rule of Victor Emmanuel II

1870

Pope Pius IX would not reconcile himself to the new political situation

Center Party

1870

Catholic political party in Germany

Battle of Sedan

September 1870

The Germans declared a larce French force, capturing more than 100,000 men, including the emperor Napoleon III. The French declared their emperor deposed and formed a provisional government, which sued for peace.

Bismarck rejcted the crown and would not accept it as William I

1871

Kulturkampf

1871 - 1878

Battle of culture, Bismarck's attack on Catholic schools, institutions, and political influence in 1870

King William I crowned himself "Emperor of the Germans"

January 1871

symbolically in Louis XIV's Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles

Reichstag

1871

German federal parliament for united Germany that met in Berlin and was elected by universal male suffrage

Citizens in Paris voted to declare the Paris Commune

March 1871 - May 1871

The Commune passed legislation granting free education, moderating rents, reducing church power, and generally supporting the working class
Paris Commune-Radical regime in Paris after Franco-Prussian War butally supressed by the French gov't in May 1871

French government's repression of the Paris commune left thousands dead

June 1871

The massacred supporters of the commune lined up in their coffins served to preserve the memory of government brutality among working class people

The Vatican supported their resistance w/ a declaration to excommunicate people

1875

Who broke the marital laws, civil marriage, etc.

German socialists steadily gained votes in Reichstag elections

1890

From 300,000 in 1881-1.5 million in 1890