Chapter 22

Life in the Industrial Revolution. 1840-1914

England/ Great Britan

Thomas Malthus

1766 - 1834

Populations grow faster than their food

Charles Lyell

1797 - 1875

Earth formed over long period of time

Edwin Chadwick

1800 - 1890

Better drainage system. His work led to England's first public heath law

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

Herbert Spencer

1820 - 1903

Coined Social darwinism

Population increased from 40% - 70%

1820 - 1840

Joseph Lister

1827 - 1912

Used Pasteur's knowledge that the air was full of bacterial to develop his antiseptic principale

"Millions of English men, women, and children were living in shit"


Said by some random scholar

"Sanitary Conditions of the Laboring Poor"


By Edwin Chatwick

England's first public health law


Made from the findings of Chadwick

Real wages almost doubled for British workers

1850 - 1906

River Thames was like a sewer


King Cholera drawing


Drawing from The Punch Magazine. Chlorea was a problem throughout the 1800's

On the Origin of Species by the means of Natural Selection


By Charles Darwin

Contagious Disease Act

1864 - 1886

Act that made Prostitutes identify themselves as prostitutes and have a biweekly medical exam and possibly forced treatment.
Feminists were against it and the law was appealed

"Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery"


By Joseph Listeur

Law giving English married women full property rights


British women received the right to vote



Robert Koch

1843 - 1910

Used the findings of Pasteur to develop cultures of harmful bacteria and describe their life cycles.
This was the spark to the bacterial revolution

Max weber

1864 - 1920

Protestantism was directly linked to Capitalism

Max Weber

1864 - 1920

Argued that the rise in Capitalism was directly linked to Protestantism in Northern Europe

Update on Civil Code of 1906 gave women gains in family law and property rights



Jean-Baptiste Lamerk

1744 - 1829

Preceded Darwin

Jean-Baptiste Lamark

1744 - 1829

Baron George Haussmann

1809 - 1884

re-organized Paris

Gustav Droz

1832 - 1895

Thought fathers should play with their children

Gustav Le Bon

1841 - 1931

The Crowd

Modernization of Paris

1850 - 1870

Made possible mostly because of Baron George Haussmann

Pasteur develops his Germ Theory

1854 - 1870

Pasteur begins studying fermentation


Emile Durkheim

1858 - 1917


Pasteur develops Pasteuration


Papa, Mama, and Baby


By Droz

A Corner of the Table


Painting created by Paul-Emile Chabas.
Depicted the elegance and intimacy of a middle class dinner party


A Doll House


By Henrick Ibsen.
Demonstrated the child parent relationship that described most marriages at the time


Dmitri Mendeleev

1834 - 1907

Periodic table


Made my Mendeleev


Bacterial Revolution

1840 - 1860

Better understanding of the medical world.
Caused death rates to decrease and cities to become safer

Realism dominated Western Literature

1840 - 1900


1840 - 1890

Compassionate marraige

1850 - 1900

End of the 1800's

Sweated Industries

1850 - 1900

Expanded rapidly after 1850.
Was equivalent to the putting out system.
Often carried out by married women to earn extra money.
Poorly made goods that the women got paid for the piece for.

Condition of working classes improves

1850 - 1914

European cities were making real progress toward adequate water supplies

1860 - 1880

Second Industrial Revolution

1865 - 1900

Last third of the 1800's.
Burst of technological creativity and innovation

Second Industrial Revolution

1880 - 1913

birthrate steadily declines

The burst of industrial creativity and technological innovation that promoted strong economic growth in the last third of the 1800's

Birthrate steadily declines

1880 - 1913

Same time as 2nd industrial revolution

Electric Street car introduced

1890 - 1900

Had special popularity in Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain and USA.
Created Suburban commuting

The richest 5% in all advanst countries got ~1/3 of the nation's income


Black Friday



General century trends

1/3 of working class births were illegigit

1800 - 1850

Age of Religious revival (early 1800's)

1800 - 1850

Churches tended to thrive more in countries (like USA) where church and state were separate

By the end of the 1800's church attendance had declined (more so in the working class than the middle class)because:
1. too many people but not enough churches
2. people (lower class especially) began to see the church as "the man" and "the man" was on the side of the middle/upper classes
3. church "feminization"

The middle class accounted for less than 20% of the population

1800 - 1900

Living standards rose as a whole but wages and conditions varied based on status

1800 - 1900

1/3 of working class brides were pregnant when they got married

1850 - 1900

Same amount of pre-marital sex going on in the working class as had been in the beginning of the 1800's but due to THE SPREAD OF MIDDLE CLASS IDEALS they took responsibility for their actions and got married

The middle class lifestyle became the norm for the different classes

1850 - 1900

End of the 1800's

~80% of the popluation belonged to the working class by 1900