HY 102 Exam 3

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Trench Warfare

1914 - 1918

Western Front in World War I
Guns mounted on trenches used during World War I. A part of this was "no man's land" and it was wet, cold, and dangerous and many soldiers had their feet amputated

Franz Ferdinand

1914

assassinated in Sarajevo
Archduke of Austria and his assassination led to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia which was the immediate cause of World War I

World War I

July 28 1914 - November 11 1918

Bolsheviks

1917

Russia
"The majority" in Russia that believed in a quick revolution from powerful socialists. Leader was Vladamir Lenin who led the Bolsheviks in war in 1917

Vladimir Lenin

1917 - 1924

USSR
Led the Bolsheviks in war in Russia during 1917 with Trotsky. The Revolution led to an authoritarian government and the creation of the the USSR which was governed by Lenin until his death in 1924

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

established in Europe
International organization operating under the principle of collective security to maintain global peace. It was weak because there was not universal membership - the United States did not join, Germany was not permitted to join, nor Russia.

Treaty of Versailles

1919

Versailles, France
Treaty between the allies and Germany after World War I

Weimar Republic

1919 - 1933

Germany
After WWII government was weak and could not pay war reparations. Government ad to raise money because during the war it took loans. Over-printing money led inflation (hyperinflation)

Fascism

1920 - 1975

Italy, Germany, Spain
Authoritarian, nationalist, obsessed with community decline, unity, order, and purity

Totalitarianism

1922

USSR
Single party government that uses propaganda, repression, surveillance, and terror in an attempt to control every aspect of society.

Benito Mussolini

1922 - 1945

Italy
Fascist Black Shirts Leader appointed prime minister and created a dictatorial fascist state (Italy). He ruled until he was executed by the Italians in 1945

Joseph Stalin

1924 - 1953

USSR
Seized control of the USSR after Lenin died. Seized the land of kulaks on the countryside by killing and starving them. With his forced industrialization and five-year plans coal and steel production increased 1,400%. By the end of his life he became paranoid and made anti-Semitic comments

Great Depression

1929 - 1940

United States
A global depression that originated in the United States when the stock market crashed on Black Tuesday

Third Reich

1933 - 1945

Germany
After the Wiemar Republic ended the Third Reich came about with Hitler as its chancellor.

National socialists

1933 - 1945

Germany
Radical ideology consisting of hating Jews and non-Aryans (which was not an actual race) and wanted to create "pure Germans"

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Spain
War between the Republicans who were loyal to the established Spanish republic against the Nationalists who were a rebel group led by Francisco Franco. The Nationalist were victorious and Franco ruled until his death in 1975

Gulag

1937 - 1950

USSR
People sent to Stalin's labor camp for minor offenses. They were beaten and killed

Auschwitz-Birkenau

1938 - 1941

Germany
Massive concentration camps the size of 5,000 football stadiums. A labor and extermination camp where 6,000 Jews were gassed each day. There 4-6 million Jews were killed and about 12 million other races and groups

The Final Solution

1938 - 1941

Germany
Hitler's plan of a genocide of Jewish people in an industrial fashion with showers of poison gas and other methods

Francisco Franco

1939 - 1975

Spain
Spanish Nationalist that led the revolt in the Spanish civil war. The Nationalists were victorious and he ruled as dictator until his death in 1975

World War II

1939 - 1945

lebensraum

1940 - 1945

Germany
"living space" which Hitler sought to conquer by means of the Holocaust

Axis Powers

1940 - 1945

Germany, Italy, Japan
Those three countries fought against the allied powers which included the United States, Britain, the USSR, and France

Winston Churchill

1940 - 1945

United Kingdom
British politician who took the place as Prime Minister in the United Kingdom during World War II

Pearl Harbor

December 7 1941

Hawaii
Japanese planes bombed US ships which led to the US declaring war on Japan and other axis powers. Also US placed Japanese in internment camps after this occurred

D-Day

June 6 1944

Normandy, France
Allied forces landed in Normandy, France and made a devastating attack on Germany. Allied offensives and Soviets captured Berlin

Hiroshima

1945

Hiroshima, Japan
US president Harry Truman decided to drop an atomic bomb on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 70000 civilians in Hiroshima died

Yalta Conference

1945

Yalta, Crimea
Allied leaders met after the end of WWII. During this time Germany was divided into 4 occupation zones (Soviet, US, British, and French) and the United Nations was created

United Nations

1945

International Organization
Replaced the ineffective League of Nations after WWII to prevent such a war from occurring again.

Truman Doctrine

1947

USSR
US devised this doctrine doctrine which used economic and military aid to block Soviet communist expansion

Iron Curtain

1947 - 1991

Between Eastern Europe and the West
Term from Winston Churchill that described the tensions between the US and USSR

Marshall Plan

1947

Europe
US provision of massive economic aid to Europe to prevent leftist communism and alleviate terrible poverty with $12 billion but Stalin tightened his grip as a result

Mohandas Gandhi

1947

India
Led the non-violent and self-rule movement in India against Britain. Encouraged the individual making of resources. Led to a Partition of India into a predominately Hindu India and predominately Muslim Pakistan. Because the partition was not popular and the tensions between the two religions grew, a radical Hindu zealot assassinated him.

Zionism

1948 - Present

Land of Israel
A form of nationalism of Jews that supports a Jewish nation state in the territory to be liberated from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, and persecution.

Berlin airlift

1948 - 1949

Berlin, Germany
Stalin blocked the Western Zones west of Berlin and cut off power and food supplies to starve the people of Allied power. The US provided aid to West Berlin via airplanes. The blockade lasted for 11 months and it resulted in heightened tensions between USSR and US

NATO

1949

US, Canada, Europe
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Provided a military force to fight for countries - US, Canada, and Europe

Nikita Khrushchev

1953 - 1964

USSR
Took power after the death of Stalin, he met with leaders of the west, released prisoners from Gulags, ended Stalin's repressive policies, and provided limited intellectual freedom. He sought to co-exist peacefully with the US though he opposed them

Vietnam War

1954 - 1975

Vietnam
The US vs. North Vietnam and the Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist guerrillas. US became involved because of their belief in the "domino theory" that once a country fell into communism then others would.

Warsaw Pact

1955

USSR
Provided military for the Soviet Union

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

Germany
East German government built this wall to stop the flow of East Germans to West Germany. It was built overnight and torn down in 1989.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Cuba
Soviet Allied Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba and the US attempted to invade Cuba in the Bay of Pigs but failed. The Soviets based nuclear missiles on Cuba. negotiations between Kennedy and Khrushchev led to the Soviet removal of weapons and the American pledge never to invade Cuba.

Margaret Thatcher

1979 - 1990

Great Britain
First female Prime Minister in Great Britain. Thatcherism was neo-liberalism (promotes private enterprise), privatization (the sale of government-owned enterprise), anti-trad union, cuts in social welfare spending, and tax cuts

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

USSR
President of the Soviet Union. Was critical of the repressive aspects of Communism and put in place policies of perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness).

glasnost and perestroika

1985 - 1991

USSR
Policies put in place by Mikhail Gorbachev of openness and restructuring to relinquish some control of government to promote economy and intellectual freedom. It put an end to censorship and led to the demise of the Soviet Union

Slobodan Milosevic

1989 - 1997

Serbia
President of Serbia when Yugoslavia, the former communist confederation of 6 republics (including Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina) was transitioning to market economics. Serbs invaded Croatia and an ethnic-cleansing took place in Bosnia-Herzegovina where 200,000 Bosnians were killed

The European Union

1994 - Present

Europe
An economic and political union located primarily in Europe. Created the currency euro in 1999 to promote economic liberalization