Final Timeline

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Jacopo Peri

1561 - 1633

Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. He wrote the first work to be called an opera today, Dafne (around 1597), and also the first opera to have survived to the present day, Euridice (1600).

Pencil

1564

The "lead" pencil (which contains no lead) was invented in 1564 when a huge graphite (black carbon) mine was discovered in England.

Claudio Monteverdi

1567 - 1643

Monteverdi's work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.

Girolamo Frescobaldi

1583 - 1643

One of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods.

Heinrich Schutz

1585 - 1672

German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century along with Claudio Monteverdi.

Alessandro Gradi

1586 - 1630

Northern Italian composer of the early Baroque era, writing in the new concertato style.

Thermometer

1593

The Thermometer was invented by Galileo Galilei in 1593. His thermometer consisted of water in a glass bulb; the water moved up and down the bulb as the temperature changed.

Biagio Marini

1594 - 1663

Italian virtuoso violinist and composer of the first half of the seventeenth century.

Le musice sopra l'Euridice

1600

An opera by Jacopo Peri, with additional music by Giulio Caccini.

Johann Carolus

1605

Johann Carolus of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper.

Cruda Amarilla

1605

Madrigal by Claudio Monteverdi. Cruda Amarilli the first of the Fifth book of Madrigals.

Refracting telescope

1608

Hans Lippershey (1570?-1619) was a German-born Dutch lens maker who demonstrated the first refracting telescope in 1608, made from two lenses; he applied for a patent for this optical refracting telescope (using 2 lenses) in 1608, intending it for use as a military device.

L'Orfeo

1609

Is a late Renaissance/early Baroque opera by Claudio Monteverdi, with a libretto by Alessandro Striggio.

Toccata No.3

1615

Toccata piece (piano piece) by Girolamo Frescobaldi.

Submarine

1620

The earliest human-powered submarine invented by Cornelis Drebbel.

O quam tu pulchra es

1625

Alessandro Grandi

Sonata IV per il violino

1626

Sonata for violin and continuo by Biagio Marini

Jean-Baptiste Lully

1632 - 1687

Florentine-born French composer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered the chief master of the French baroque style.

Ricercare from Mass for the Madonna

1635

Ricercare by Frescobaldi

O lieber Herre Gott

1636

Sacred concerto by Heinrich Schutz.

L'incoronazione di Poppea

1642

Is an Italian opera by Claudio Monteverdi in a prologue and three acts, with a libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello, which was first performed at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice during the 1643 carnival season.

Barometer

1643

Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer.

Saul, was verfolgst du mich

1650

Sacred concerto by Schutz

Archangelo Correli

1653 - 1713

Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.

Pendulum clock

1657

Christiaan Huygens develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of Galileo Galilei.

Henry Purcell

1659 - 1695

English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music.

Alessandro Scarlatti

1660 - 1725

Italian Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera.

Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

1665 - 1729

French musician, harpsichordist and composer.

Francois Couperin

1668 - 1733

French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. He was known as Couperin le Grand ("Couperin the Great") to distinguish him from other members of the musically talented Couperin family.

Candy Cane!

1670

The first reference to a candy cane is made. A candy cane turned upside down reveals the letter J, which many believe represents Jesus.

Antonio Vivaldi

1678 - 1741

Nicknamed il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest") because of his red hair, was an Italian Baroque composer, Catholic priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice.

Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2

1680

Trio Sonata by Correli

Jean-Philippe Rameau

1683 - 1764

French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin.

GF Handel

1685 - 1759

German-born British Baroque composer famous for his operas, oratorios, anthems and organ concertos.

J.S. Bach

1685 - 1750

German composer, organist, violinist, harpsichordist, and violist.

Armide

1686

Opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. Critics in the 18th century regarded Armide as Lully's masterpiece.

Suite No.3 in A minor

1687

Keyboard Suite written by Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre.

Dido and Aeneas

1689

An opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works.

Clori vezzosa e bella

1690

Cantana by Alessandro Scarlatti

The Bank of England is established.

1694

The first piano was built by Bartolomeo Cristofori

1709

The Tuning fork was invented by John Shore

1711

Violin Concerto in A minor Op. 3 No.7

1711

from L'estro harmonica. Violin concert written by Vivaldi.

Vingt-cinquieme ordre

1713

Suite by Francois Couperin.

Prelude and Fugue in A minor

1715

Organ prelude and Fugue by JS bach.

Durch Adams Fall

1716

Chorale prelude written by JS Bach. Tune is in bar form.

Giulio Cesare

1724

commonly known simply as Giulio Cesare, is an Italian opera (dramma per musica) in three acts composed for the Royal Academy of Music by George Frideric Handel in 1724.

Hippolyte et Aricie

1732

first opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau. It was premiered to great controversy by the Académie Royale de Musique at its theatre in the Palais-Royal in Paris on October 1, 1733.

Saul

1738

dramatic oratorio in three acts written by George Frideric Handel with a libretto by Charles Jennens. Taken from the First Book of Samuel.