Final Timeline


Jacopo Peri

1561 - 1633

Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. He wrote the first work to be called an opera today, Dafne (around 1597), and also the first opera to have survived to the present day, Euridice (1600).



The "lead" pencil (which contains no lead) was invented in 1564 when a huge graphite (black carbon) mine was discovered in England.

Claudio Monteverdi

1567 - 1643

Monteverdi's work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.

Girolamo Frescobaldi

1583 - 1643

One of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods.

Heinrich Schutz

1585 - 1672

German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century along with Claudio Monteverdi.

Alessandro Gradi

1586 - 1630

Northern Italian composer of the early Baroque era, writing in the new concertato style.



The Thermometer was invented by Galileo Galilei in 1593. His thermometer consisted of water in a glass bulb; the water moved up and down the bulb as the temperature changed.

Biagio Marini

1594 - 1663

Italian virtuoso violinist and composer of the first half of the seventeenth century.

Le musice sopra l'Euridice


An opera by Jacopo Peri, with additional music by Giulio Caccini.

Johann Carolus


Johann Carolus of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper.

Cruda Amarilla


Madrigal by Claudio Monteverdi. Cruda Amarilli the first of the Fifth book of Madrigals.

Refracting telescope


Hans Lippershey (1570?-1619) was a German-born Dutch lens maker who demonstrated the first refracting telescope in 1608, made from two lenses; he applied for a patent for this optical refracting telescope (using 2 lenses) in 1608, intending it for use as a military device.



Is a late Renaissance/early Baroque opera by Claudio Monteverdi, with a libretto by Alessandro Striggio.

Toccata No.3


Toccata piece (piano piece) by Girolamo Frescobaldi.



The earliest human-powered submarine invented by Cornelis Drebbel.

O quam tu pulchra es


Alessandro Grandi

Sonata IV per il violino


Sonata for violin and continuo by Biagio Marini

Jean-Baptiste Lully

1632 - 1687

Florentine-born French composer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered the chief master of the French baroque style.

Ricercare from Mass for the Madonna


Ricercare by Frescobaldi

O lieber Herre Gott


Sacred concerto by Heinrich Schutz.

L'incoronazione di Poppea


Is an Italian opera by Claudio Monteverdi in a prologue and three acts, with a libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello, which was first performed at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice during the 1643 carnival season.



Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer.

Saul, was verfolgst du mich


Sacred concerto by Schutz

Archangelo Correli

1653 - 1713

Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.

Pendulum clock


Christiaan Huygens develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of Galileo Galilei.

Henry Purcell

1659 - 1695

English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music.

Alessandro Scarlatti

1660 - 1725

Italian Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera.

Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

1665 - 1729

French musician, harpsichordist and composer.

Francois Couperin

1668 - 1733

French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. He was known as Couperin le Grand ("Couperin the Great") to distinguish him from other members of the musically talented Couperin family.

Candy Cane!


The first reference to a candy cane is made. A candy cane turned upside down reveals the letter J, which many believe represents Jesus.

Antonio Vivaldi

1678 - 1741

Nicknamed il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest") because of his red hair, was an Italian Baroque composer, Catholic priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice.

Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 2


Trio Sonata by Correli

Jean-Philippe Rameau

1683 - 1764

French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin.

GF Handel

1685 - 1759

German-born British Baroque composer famous for his operas, oratorios, anthems and organ concertos.

J.S. Bach

1685 - 1750

German composer, organist, violinist, harpsichordist, and violist.



Opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. Critics in the 18th century regarded Armide as Lully's masterpiece.

Suite No.3 in A minor


Keyboard Suite written by Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre.

Dido and Aeneas


An opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works.

Clori vezzosa e bella


Cantana by Alessandro Scarlatti

The Bank of England is established.


The first piano was built by Bartolomeo Cristofori


The Tuning fork was invented by John Shore


Violin Concerto in A minor Op. 3 No.7


from L'estro harmonica. Violin concert written by Vivaldi.

Vingt-cinquieme ordre


Suite by Francois Couperin.

Prelude and Fugue in A minor


Organ prelude and Fugue by JS bach.

Durch Adams Fall


Chorale prelude written by JS Bach. Tune is in bar form.

Giulio Cesare


commonly known simply as Giulio Cesare, is an Italian opera (dramma per musica) in three acts composed for the Royal Academy of Music by George Frideric Handel in 1724.

Hippolyte et Aricie


first opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau. It was premiered to great controversy by the Académie Royale de Musique at its theatre in the Palais-Royal in Paris on October 1, 1733.



dramatic oratorio in three acts written by George Frideric Handel with a libretto by Charles Jennens. Taken from the First Book of Samuel.