International Relations 1919-1932


Treaty of Versailles

18 January 1919 - January 1920

GB & US could not attend until December 1919
G signed 28 June 1919; anger over war-guilt clause

GB Negotiation Mission

March 1919

Undercover status: diplomatic spies sent in failed to arrange anything.

Allied Evacuation of Russia

April 1919 - October 1922

Odessa, Archangel, N'rn R
US & GB evacuated first.
J stayed in Vladivostock until October 1922.

WW appeal to remove VO

23 April 1919

Wilson appealed to the I'n public to remove Vittorio Orlando from power, forcing Orlando to leaves Paris negotiations.

LoN approved by ToV

28 April 1919

Plenary session for the Treaty of Versailles approved WW's plan for League of Nations.

Kolchak empowered

May 1919

AK recognised as the supreme R'n authority by most W'rn EU'n states.

G landing at Smyrna

15 May 1919

G landing at Smyrna was perceived by T as an invasion, and provoked a T Nationalist uprising.

VO loses power

19 June 1919

Orlando loses power and is succeeded by F Nitti.

I seizure of Fiume

September 1919

I adventurers, led by D'Annunzio, seized Yugoslavian town of Fiume.

Treaty of St Germain

10 Sept 1919

A signs ToStG; this causes internal problems. A people are outraged by staggering reparations and level of blame denoted.

Republicans gain House

5 November 1919

WW's power is restricted by an opposition House. This hinders his ambitious international campaign in the future.

Treaty of Neuilly

27 November 1919

B signs ToN, known in B as 'The Second National Catastrophe'. In WW2, B invades much of the land it lost as a result of ToN.

Kolchak executed

February 1920

R Civil War led to much bloodshed and the death of AK. Coming to an end, the Comintern is established.

P expansion

April 1920 - October 1920

Ukraine, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia
P begins to expand into areas previously held (& beyond).
April: Ukraine
July: Teschen (Cz)
October: Vilna (Li)

G enters Ruhr

April 1920

G troops enter the demilitarized zone in an attempt to stop an uprising. F responds w/ an invasion - as per ToV.

Spa Conference

April 1920

LoN agrees on G reparations.

Treaty of Trianon

4 June 1920

H signs ToT, thereby losing 2/3 of its land.

I evacuation of Albania

July 1920 - August 1920

FN of I formally recognises Albanian independence of I (& Gr) in August.

Treaty of Rapallo

12 November 1920

I reluctantly signs ToR.
Under the secret London Pact (1915), I was to receive much of Y if Allies won WW1. WW outlawed this pact & I lost out on this land.
I subsequently evacuated all troops from Fiume.

King Constantine returned

December 1920

King Costantine of Gr was reinstated, having fled Gr after disagreement w/ PM EV over Gr's involvement in WW1.

'Little Entente' established


Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia
All three found their boundaries massively extended following recent treaties.

GB-J Alliance ends


GB appealed to US to maintain close relationship w/ J (strength in Asia & unreliable rising power).
BUT US wanted to limit J's power; for the same reasons.

F-P ally against G

February 1921

In the face of dwindling GB/US support, F & P continued to believe in a strong G'n threat so formed an allegiance.

London Conference

21 February 1921 - 12 March 1921

Allies failed to mediate discussions to try to rescue ToS from attack (by both sides).

F occupation of G

March 1921

Dusseldorf, Ruhrort, Duisberg
G evaded reparations negotiations at London Conference. F responded to failure to pay w/ invasion.

G-R peace treaty

March 1921

Intended to raise bargaining power of both nations in negotiations w/ The W.

Treaty of Riga

18 March 1921

Gave P a great deal of Ukrainian land, hitherto unimpeded by treaties.

Reparations Comm Report

27 April 1921

The Reparations Commission (put together as part of the Paris Conference - for the treaties) published a report indicating G was to pay £50m upfront & £6,650m in total (Allied aggregate).

US-G Peace Treaty

25 August 1921

Republican Congress prevented WW from signing ToV; forcing a separate treaty between US & G. This was due to Republican resistance to LoN.
US was entitled to full privileges due to Allies, BUT the US-G relationship was not under LoN jurisdiction.

F empowers T Nat Gov

October 1921

France recognises the legitimacy of the T National Government in the region of Smyrna, a blow to Gr.

Washington Naval Conference

12 November 1921 - 6 February 1922

Agreed in Washington DC
This was to restrict outstripping growth of one nation's naval strength (particularly wrt. battleships); the ratios were:
US (5): GB (5): J (3): F (1.75): I (1.75)

R supports T Nat Gov

December 1921

This is received as a power-block of Gr from E'n side.

Ch 'Open Door' Policy

6 February 1922

9-power treaty w/o enforcing sanctions.

Genoa Conference

10 April 1922 - 19 May 1922

A failed attempt at dealing with the post-war economic problems & bad relations w/ R.

Balfour Note

1 August 1922

GB was set to receive enough from EU debtors to pay off US.

T Offensive

August 1922 - September 1922

After March 1922 failed Gr offensive, T struck out & beat back Gr.
GB wanted to support armed justice; F & I did not.

LoN loan to A

October 1922

A's economy (crippled by loss of land & war - among other factors) could not support itself nor reparations; these were eventually abandoned.

DLG loses power

October 1922

DLG's position w/in Nat Gov had been dramatically weakened by stance on Gr/T issue (too willing to engage in war again) & by selling OBEs.
Overwhelming Carlton vote to abandon Coal for coming election.

BM gains power

31 October 1922

Mussolini's 'Roman', expansionist military message greatly appealed to a weakened I.

Weimar Republic falls

November 1922

Crippling economic factors led to the collapse of G'n parliament; argued that G was not ready for such an innovative governmental structure.
Wirth (PM) has asked for a 3/4 year moratorium on reparations.

G default on reparations

26 December 1922

Reparations for timber (remarkable it wasn't one of the man-made goods) had to be given a moratorium for January & February.

US-GB Reparations Agreement


US had been unsure about giving an EU loan to stabilise G economy, needed support from GB.

F invasion of Ruhr

11 January 1923

In an attempt to gain reparations by force (ToV) France invaded Ruhr (G) to take back what was owed.

Lausanne Conference Treaty

21 January 1923

T takes back Constantinople.

G passive resistance

February 1923 - 26 September 1923

The people refused to work to produce goods & materials that would immediately be taken by F for reparations.
Stresemann called it off. Arguably the cause of the ensuing hyper-inflation (forced gov's hand).

USSR created

July 1923

I invasion of Corfu

August 1923

Part of Mussolini's plan to reinstate an I Empire (Roman rhetoric).
Mussolini agreed to be tried by a counsel of ambassadors, who offered to pay I to retreat (NOT LoN).

Stresemann empowered

13 August 1923

Stresemann was appointed Chancellor & Foreign Minister, solved the G hyper-inflation by recalling all printed money and introducing a new currency in small circulation.

F-Cz Alliance

January 1924

Benes was becoming anxious about anti-G implications of F policy and wanted protection.

Lenin dies

21 January 1924

The absence of this influential leader led to a floundering in R policy.

USSR formally recognised

February 1924 - October 1924

February: GB & I
October: F
Notably, this was only once Lenin had died.

I annex of Fiume

16 March 1924

Resentment w/in Y against foundation-less I expansionist policy.

I assassination

10 June 1924

Socialist politician in I was murdered after having criticised recently the violence of Mussolini's party. Opened W'rn Eu's eyes to the reality of fascism w/in I.

Dawes Plan

September 1924

An attempt to solve the Eu reparations problems; forced F to evacuate Ruhr.

Tories gain power

29 October 1924

Inherent from short-lived Labour gov. Post-Zinoviev letter crisis.

G to control own tariffs

January 1925

As part of the Dawes Plan requirements.

Geneva Protocol

17 January 1925 - 8 February 1928

Condemned nations who did not adhere to LoN dispute protocols, & referred international disagreements to LoN counsel.

Locarno Treaties

5 October 1925 - 3 December 1925

Dealt w/ G W'rn borders (particularly w/ F).
A failure of an attempt to put issues to rest, really needed to address problems in E.