GB & US could not attend until December 1919
G signed 28 June 1919; anger over war-guilt clause
Undercover status: diplomatic spies sent in failed to arrange anything.
Odessa, Archangel, N'rn R
US & GB evacuated first.
J stayed in Vladivostock until October 1922.
Wilson appealed to the I'n public to remove Vittorio Orlando from power, forcing Orlando to leaves Paris negotiations.
Plenary session for the Treaty of Versailles approved WW's plan for League of Nations.
AK recognised as the supreme R'n authority by most W'rn EU'n states.
G landing at Smyrna was perceived by T as an invasion, and provoked a T Nationalist uprising.
Orlando loses power and is succeeded by F Nitti.
I adventurers, led by D'Annunzio, seized Yugoslavian town of Fiume.
A signs ToStG; this causes internal problems. A people are outraged by staggering reparations and level of blame denoted.
WW's power is restricted by an opposition House. This hinders his ambitious international campaign in the future.
B signs ToN, known in B as 'The Second National Catastrophe'. In WW2, B invades much of the land it lost as a result of ToN.
R Civil War led to much bloodshed and the death of AK. Coming to an end, the Comintern is established.
Ukraine, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia
P begins to expand into areas previously held (& beyond).
July: Teschen (Cz)
October: Vilna (Li)
G troops enter the demilitarized zone in an attempt to stop an uprising. F responds w/ an invasion - as per ToV.
LoN agrees on G reparations.
H signs ToT, thereby losing 2/3 of its land.
FN of I formally recognises Albanian independence of I (& Gr) in August.
I reluctantly signs ToR.
Under the secret London Pact (1915), I was to receive much of Y if Allies won WW1. WW outlawed this pact & I lost out on this land.
I subsequently evacuated all troops from Fiume.
King Costantine of Gr was reinstated, having fled Gr after disagreement w/ PM EV over Gr's involvement in WW1.
Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia
All three found their boundaries massively extended following recent treaties.
GB appealed to US to maintain close relationship w/ J (strength in Asia & unreliable rising power).
BUT US wanted to limit J's power; for the same reasons.
In the face of dwindling GB/US support, F & P continued to believe in a strong G'n threat so formed an allegiance.
Allies failed to mediate discussions to try to rescue ToS from attack (by both sides).
Dusseldorf, Ruhrort, Duisberg
G evaded reparations negotiations at London Conference. F responded to failure to pay w/ invasion.
Intended to raise bargaining power of both nations in negotiations w/ The W.
Gave P a great deal of Ukrainian land, hitherto unimpeded by treaties.
The Reparations Commission (put together as part of the Paris Conference - for the treaties) published a report indicating G was to pay £50m upfront & £6,650m in total (Allied aggregate).
Republican Congress prevented WW from signing ToV; forcing a separate treaty between US & G. This was due to Republican resistance to LoN.
US was entitled to full privileges due to Allies, BUT the US-G relationship was not under LoN jurisdiction.
France recognises the legitimacy of the T National Government in the region of Smyrna, a blow to Gr.
Agreed in Washington DC
This was to restrict outstripping growth of one nation's naval strength (particularly wrt. battleships); the ratios were:
US (5): GB (5): J (3): F (1.75): I (1.75)
This is received as a power-block of Gr from E'n side.
9-power treaty w/o enforcing sanctions.
A failed attempt at dealing with the post-war economic problems & bad relations w/ R.
GB was set to receive enough from EU debtors to pay off US.
After March 1922 failed Gr offensive, T struck out & beat back Gr.
GB wanted to support armed justice; F & I did not.
A's economy (crippled by loss of land & war - among other factors) could not support itself nor reparations; these were eventually abandoned.
DLG's position w/in Nat Gov had been dramatically weakened by stance on Gr/T issue (too willing to engage in war again) & by selling OBEs.
Overwhelming Carlton vote to abandon Coal for coming election.
Mussolini's 'Roman', expansionist military message greatly appealed to a weakened I.
Crippling economic factors led to the collapse of G'n parliament; argued that G was not ready for such an innovative governmental structure.
Wirth (PM) has asked for a 3/4 year moratorium on reparations.
Reparations for timber (remarkable it wasn't one of the man-made goods) had to be given a moratorium for January & February.
US had been unsure about giving an EU loan to stabilise G economy, needed support from GB.
In an attempt to gain reparations by force (ToV) France invaded Ruhr (G) to take back what was owed.
T takes back Constantinople.
The people refused to work to produce goods & materials that would immediately be taken by F for reparations.
Stresemann called it off. Arguably the cause of the ensuing hyper-inflation (forced gov's hand).
Part of Mussolini's plan to reinstate an I Empire (Roman rhetoric).
Mussolini agreed to be tried by a counsel of ambassadors, who offered to pay I to retreat (NOT LoN).
Stresemann was appointed Chancellor & Foreign Minister, solved the G hyper-inflation by recalling all printed money and introducing a new currency in small circulation.
Benes was becoming anxious about anti-G implications of F policy and wanted protection.
The absence of this influential leader led to a floundering in R policy.
February: GB & I
Notably, this was only once Lenin had died.
Resentment w/in Y against foundation-less I expansionist policy.
Socialist politician in I was murdered after having criticised recently the violence of Mussolini's party. Opened W'rn Eu's eyes to the reality of fascism w/in I.
An attempt to solve the Eu reparations problems; forced F to evacuate Ruhr.
Inherent from short-lived Labour gov. Post-Zinoviev letter crisis.
As part of the Dawes Plan requirements.
Condemned nations who did not adhere to LoN dispute protocols, & referred international disagreements to LoN counsel.
Dealt w/ G W'rn borders (particularly w/ F).
A failure of an attempt to put issues to rest, really needed to address problems in E.