GB & US could not attend until December 1919
G signed 28 June 1919; anger over war-guilt clause
GB Negotiation Mission
Undercover status: diplomatic spies sent in failed to arrange anything.
Allied Evacuation of Russia
April 1919 - October 1922
Odessa, Archangel, N'rn R
US & GB evacuated first.
J stayed in Vladivostock until October 1922.
WW appeal to remove VO
23 April 1919
Wilson appealed to the I'n public to remove Vittorio Orlando from power, forcing Orlando to leaves Paris negotiations.
LoN approved by ToV
28 April 1919
Plenary session for the Treaty of Versailles approved WW's plan for League of Nations.
AK recognised as the supreme R'n authority by most W'rn EU'n states.
G landing at Smyrna
15 May 1919
G landing at Smyrna was perceived by T as an invasion, and provoked a T Nationalist uprising.
VO loses power
19 June 1919
Orlando loses power and is succeeded by F Nitti.
I seizure of Fiume
I adventurers, led by D'Annunzio, seized Yugoslavian town of Fiume.
Treaty of St Germain
10 Sept 1919
A signs ToStG; this causes internal problems. A people are outraged by staggering reparations and level of blame denoted.
Republicans gain House
5 November 1919
WW's power is restricted by an opposition House. This hinders his ambitious international campaign in the future.
Treaty of Neuilly
27 November 1919
B signs ToN, known in B as 'The Second National Catastrophe'. In WW2, B invades much of the land it lost as a result of ToN.
R Civil War led to much bloodshed and the death of AK. Coming to an end, the Comintern is established.
April 1920 - October 1920
Ukraine, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia
P begins to expand into areas previously held (& beyond).
July: Teschen (Cz)
October: Vilna (Li)
LoN agrees on G reparations.
G enters Ruhr
G troops enter the demilitarized zone in an attempt to stop an uprising. F responds w/ an invasion - as per ToV.
Treaty of Trianon
4 June 1920
H signs ToT, thereby losing 2/3 of its land.
I evacuation of Albania
July 1920 - August 1920
FN of I formally recognises Albanian independence of I (& Gr) in August.
Treaty of Rapallo
12 November 1920
I reluctantly signs ToR.
Under the secret London Pact (1915), I was to receive much of Y if Allies won WW1. WW outlawed this pact & I lost out on this land.
I subsequently evacuated all troops from Fiume.
King Constantine returned
King Costantine of Gr was reinstated, having fled Gr after disagreement w/ PM EV over Gr's involvement in WW1.
GB-J Alliance ends
GB appealed to US to maintain close relationship w/ J (strength in Asia & unreliable rising power).
BUT US wanted to limit J's power; for the same reasons.
'Little Entente' established
Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia
All three found their boundaries massively extended following recent treaties.
F-P ally against G
In the face of dwindling GB/US support, F & P continued to believe in a strong G'n threat so formed an allegiance.
21 February 1921 - 12 March 1921
Allies failed to mediate discussions to try to rescue ToS from attack (by both sides).
G-R peace treaty
Intended to raise bargaining power of both nations in negotiations w/ The W.
F occupation of G
Dusseldorf, Ruhrort, Duisberg
G evaded reparations negotiations at London Conference. F responded to failure to pay w/ invasion.
Treaty of Riga
18 March 1921
Gave P a great deal of Ukrainian land, hitherto unimpeded by treaties.
Reparations Comm Report
27 April 1921
The Reparations Commission (put together as part of the Paris Conference - for the treaties) published a report indicating G was to pay £50m upfront & £6,650m in total (Allied aggregate).
US-G Peace Treaty
25 August 1921
Republican Congress prevented WW from signing ToV; forcing a separate treaty between US & G. This was due to Republican resistance to LoN.
US was entitled to full privileges due to Allies, BUT the US-G relationship was not under LoN jurisdiction.
F empowers T Nat Gov
France recognises the legitimacy of the T National Government in the region of Smyrna, a blow to Gr.
Washington Naval Conference
12 November 1921 - 6 February 1922
Agreed in Washington DC
This was to restrict outstripping growth of one nation's naval strength (particularly wrt. battleships); the ratios were:
US (5): GB (5): J (3): F (1.75): I (1.75)
R supports T Nat Gov
This is received as a power-block of Gr from E'n side.
Ch 'Open Door' Policy
6 February 1922
9-power treaty w/o enforcing sanctions.
10 April 1922 - 19 May 1922
A failed attempt at dealing with the post-war economic problems & bad relations w/ R.
August 1922 - September 1922
After March 1922 failed Gr offensive, T struck out & beat back Gr.
GB wanted to support armed justice; F & I did not.
1 August 1922
GB was set to receive enough from EU debtors to pay off US.
DLG loses power
DLG's position w/in Nat Gov had been dramatically weakened by stance on Gr/T issue (too willing to engage in war again) & by selling OBEs.
Overwhelming Carlton vote to abandon Coal for coming election.
LoN loan to A
A's economy (crippled by loss of land & war - among other factors) could not support itself nor reparations; these were eventually abandoned.
BM gains power
31 October 1922
Mussolini's 'Roman', expansionist military message greatly appealed to a weakened I.
Weimar Republic falls
Crippling economic factors led to the collapse of G'n parliament; argued that G was not ready for such an innovative governmental structure.
Wirth (PM) has asked for a 3/4 year moratorium on reparations.
G default on reparations
26 December 1922
Reparations for timber (remarkable it wasn't one of the man-made goods) had to be given a moratorium for January & February.
US-GB Reparations Agreement
US had been unsure about giving an EU loan to stabilise G economy, needed support from GB.
F invasion of Ruhr
11 January 1923
In an attempt to gain reparations by force (ToV) France invaded Ruhr (G) to take back what was owed.
Lausanne Conference Treaty
21 January 1923
T takes back Constantinople.
G passive resistance
February 1923 - 26 September 1923
The people refused to work to produce goods & materials that would immediately be taken by F for reparations.
Stresemann called it off. Arguably the cause of the ensuing hyper-inflation (forced gov's hand).
I invasion of Corfu
Part of Mussolini's plan to reinstate an I Empire (Roman rhetoric).
Mussolini agreed to be tried by a counsel of ambassadors, who offered to pay I to retreat (NOT LoN).
13 August 1923
Stresemann was appointed Chancellor & Foreign Minister, solved the G hyper-inflation by recalling all printed money and introducing a new currency in small circulation.
Benes was becoming anxious about anti-G implications of F policy and wanted protection.
21 January 1924
The absence of this influential leader led to a floundering in R policy.
USSR formally recognised
February 1924 - October 1924
February: GB & I
Notably, this was only once Lenin had died.
I annex of Fiume
16 March 1924
Resentment w/in Y against foundation-less I expansionist policy.
10 June 1924
Socialist politician in I was murdered after having criticised recently the violence of Mussolini's party. Opened W'rn Eu's eyes to the reality of fascism w/in I.
An attempt to solve the Eu reparations problems; forced F to evacuate Ruhr.
Tories gain power
29 October 1924
Inherent from short-lived Labour gov. Post-Zinoviev letter crisis.
G to control own tariffs
As part of the Dawes Plan requirements.
17 January 1925 - 8 February 1928
Condemned nations who did not adhere to LoN dispute protocols, & referred international disagreements to LoN counsel.
5 October 1925 - 3 December 1925
Dealt w/ G W'rn borders (particularly w/ F).
A failure of an attempt to put issues to rest, really needed to address problems in E.