Birth of Britain Part III

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Social Upheaval

1381

Social Upheaval against the upper classes.

Violence in London

1382

By peasantry against raised taxes. They won privileges, declaring that no man must serve another against his will, and abolished serfdom. The peasants' leader died, and King Richard II declared that he would be their leader and look out for them.

Parlimant is Against Them

1382

Parliament refutes the concessions gained by the lower classes

War on France

1386

That's just what England does. It would distract the meddling officials (who plagued Richard) from his changes in government.

Devere Takes on Nobles

1387

Richard had dismissed many nobles. These men conspired against him and wished to restore themselves to power. DeVere, one of Richard's advisors went to battle to preserve his royal rights. He lost, and Richard was at the noble's mercy.

Richard Rules Justly

1389 - 1397

Richard acted as a good and constitutional king, popular and loved by the aristocracy. Although he promised to be the leader of the peasants, he was accused of foregoing his promise. Although, he did release many peasants from royal bonds and proposed an abolition of serfdom (but he was overruled).

Richard takes back Power.

1389

After having the Noble's purposes pushed on him, King Richard appeared in court and asked to be told how old he was. HE declared that he was old enough to make his own decisions and would choose his own advisors and such. This strategy proved successful.

Time for Revenge

1397

Richard knew how to hold a grudge, after lulling the anxieties of the nobles, he called together prominent members of the aristocracy. He declared some earls traitors and had them executed. Nobles did not like that.

Henry is exiled.

1398

Two nobles, Henry and Mowbray got into a quarrel and one accused the other of treason. Many conflicting pieces of evidence were presented, and it was decided that a trial by battle was required. Right before the battle, Richard II broke it up and exiled both. Henry schemed and lived in France, while Mowbray died soon after.

Aristocracy Anxiety

1398

The parliament was totally enslaved to Richard II, and the upper class realized that many of their liberties had gone unprotected. Churchill now explains that the nobles went on guard once again.

John of Gaunt Dies

1399

Richard II, needed money and took John's land that should've been given to Henry of Lancaster (in exile).

Henry invades England

1399

After, his lands had been taken, Henry invaded England while Richard went to Ireland. Richard had some barons aiding him and he defeated Richard.

Richard II dies

1400

It was thought that Henry IV killed him. There were also some theories that Richard escaped and was inhiding In the end Henry IV was faced with constant murder plots

Defeating Edward Mortimer and the Percys.

1403

The war against the scots continued and the Percy's had defended England unaided. They demanded 60,000 money. Henry could only offer 40000. Edward Mortimer joined the Percy's in a revolt and battled. Henry won.

Surrendering to Parliament.

1405

THe Earl of Northumberland, angry at the death of his son, revolted again in two years. The idea of the program was reform, an attempt to make it more widespread and less to do with personal issues. In the battles, Henry won. However, he knew that the only safety he could find was in surrender. So he gave away a ton of his royal rights.

Henry, prince of wales

1411

The Prince attempted to take the throne from his father. However, the king's defenders were more numerous and powerful, and the prince withdrew.

Henry IV Dies

1413

Henry V gets ready to fight with France

1414

The two fighting factions in France had finally found a winner, the orleanists. So Henry the fifth allied himself with the Burgundians. Sparking the war anew.

We few, we happy few

1415

came to France.

HRE aknoledges him as King of France

1416

All your strongholds are mine!

1417

Through a long expedition, Henry V took all the French Strongholds in Normandy.

Treaty of Troyes

1420

Heir to the French kingdom, regent, and husband of Charles' daughter.

Henry V died

1422

The infant king disputed

1423

The French and Scottish (of course) rebelled.

Joan of Arc

1429

Even though the French and Scots were trying to rebel, the English archers rocked. It wasn't until Joan of arc came that the French could win.

We are lost, we have burnt a saint.

1431

Joan of Arc burned to death.

Henry VI marries

1445

He married Margaret, who was to make up for Henry's weak will.

Cessation of Maine

1448

In exchange for Henry VI's wife, England gave the French Maine. The English were not enthusiastic.

French conquests, gone

1449 - 1451

Duke of York, heir?

1450

The rivalries were growing, and the Duke of York, quitted his government of Ireland and landed unbidden in Wales. During the parliamentary session, a member of the commons declared that Duke of York should be named heir. King Henry Vi promised a counsicl would be formed of which he would be a member. the court had to choose between York and Somerset.

Murder of Duke of Suffolk

1450

The feeling against the crown had grown, and the crown started to lose power. For example, the duke of somerset was being banished, but the royal navy captured his ship and murdered him.

Uprising in Kent.

1450

The Lancastrians were being supported by the Yorkists.

The King's gone Mad!

1453

Henry VI finally had a blood heir!

1453

Queen Margaret gave birth.

The king regains his sense.

1454

St. Albans

1455

When the King got his memory back, the duke of York ceased to be one of the lord protectors. he relinquished his power. However, he later gathered his forces and waged war in the town of St. Albans. They captured King Henry VI

Peace for now...

1456 - 1459

An uneasy time

Battle of Wakefield

1460

The Queen came to assert her son's birthright. She marched into battle and won. While previous battles allowed the peasentry to be spared, here ho such policy was adopted, nor at the future battles.

King disenherits own son.

1460

War started again and the duke of York kept King Henry at Westminster until the king granted him the crown. The Duke was to control the government and succeed the king at his death. Queen Margaret was not amused.

Battle of St. Alban and Mortimer's cross

1461

At the first, a bloody combat ensued and the son of the duke of York was victorious. In the second, Queen Margaret got him back.

King Edward

1461

Although the Queen had regained her husband, she did not march to London, perhaps because the Northern troops were so ferocious. Edward had no such qualms. He had also gained the love of the people. He was Crowned King.

Regaining Lancastrian fortresses.

1462

He did

Duke Somerset

1463

Duke of Somerset was very close to the king and a prominent noble. HE returned to the Lancastrian side, his men came with him. Joining forces with King Henry, the war started anew.

King Edward crushed the revolt

1464

At HEdgely Moor. King Edward was victorious.

Lancastrian Knights are Killed

1464

Executed by the dozens.

Marries his Sister to Duke of Burgundy

1468

Lancastrian nobles were flooding the mainland, begging for protection and lodging. The French took them in, in order to some day attack England. While some wanted Edward to be in France's favor (being the most powerful country) Edward did not want to become a vassal state. SO he made alliances with Burgundy.

Earl of Warwick

1470

Another main proponent of King Edward the IV, the earl of warwick, tried to depose him. He was defeated and went to France to beg protection.

King Henry Vi (again)

1470

Warwick met in France with Queen Margaret, and they, with the French King, conspired to overthrow Edward. They marched to London, released Henry VI and gave him a crown.

Edward Regains Power

1471

Edward defeated Margaret, Henry and Warwick, in a series of battles, aided by the treachery of Clarence.

Invading France

1475

He didn't really want to go into war on France with Burgundy, but parliament did. He invaded, made peace and got tribute.

Hey, let's get rid of this Clarencce Guy!

1478

Clarence was troublesome, so Edward met with parliament to banish his brother.

Richard III

1483

He was coronated after taking possession of the king's (his brother's) son and taking the crown after declaring them bastards.

Edward Dies

1483

HE was preparing to have his son smoothly take the throne. But he died, cause he was promiscuous.

No kids

1484

His son died and his wife could bear no more children.

Richard reconciles to Edward IV's Wife

1484

Despite killing her children, declaring her last marriage invalid, she left her sanctuary. She was going to have her eldest daughter married to Richard's rival. TO prevent such an event from happening, Richard promised to provide for the ex queen and find her daughters suitable husbands.

Ricmond marries Elizabeth's Daughter

1485

He came from France to fight Richard III. Richard Died. From the marriage, the Tudor line was made.