Social Upheaval against the upper classes.
By peasantry against raised taxes. They won privileges, declaring that no man must serve another against his will, and abolished serfdom. The peasants' leader died, and King Richard II declared that he would be their leader and look out for them.
Parliament refutes the concessions gained by the lower classes
That's just what England does. It would distract the meddling officials (who plagued Richard) from his changes in government.
Richard had dismissed many nobles. These men conspired against him and wished to restore themselves to power. DeVere, one of Richard's advisors went to battle to preserve his royal rights. He lost, and Richard was at the noble's mercy.
Richard acted as a good and constitutional king, popular and loved by the aristocracy. Although he promised to be the leader of the peasants, he was accused of foregoing his promise. Although, he did release many peasants from royal bonds and proposed an abolition of serfdom (but he was overruled).
After having the Noble's purposes pushed on him, King Richard appeared in court and asked to be told how old he was. HE declared that he was old enough to make his own decisions and would choose his own advisors and such. This strategy proved successful.
Richard knew how to hold a grudge, after lulling the anxieties of the nobles, he called together prominent members of the aristocracy. He declared some earls traitors and had them executed. Nobles did not like that.
Two nobles, Henry and Mowbray got into a quarrel and one accused the other of treason. Many conflicting pieces of evidence were presented, and it was decided that a trial by battle was required. Right before the battle, Richard II broke it up and exiled both. Henry schemed and lived in France, while Mowbray died soon after.
The parliament was totally enslaved to Richard II, and the upper class realized that many of their liberties had gone unprotected. Churchill now explains that the nobles went on guard once again.
Richard II, needed money and took John's land that should've been given to Henry of Lancaster (in exile).
After, his lands had been taken, Henry invaded England while Richard went to Ireland. Richard had some barons aiding him and he defeated Richard.
It was thought that Henry IV killed him. There were also some theories that Richard escaped and was inhiding In the end Henry IV was faced with constant murder plots
The war against the scots continued and the Percy's had defended England unaided. They demanded 60,000 money. Henry could only offer 40000. Edward Mortimer joined the Percy's in a revolt and battled. Henry won.
THe Earl of Northumberland, angry at the death of his son, revolted again in two years. The idea of the program was reform, an attempt to make it more widespread and less to do with personal issues. In the battles, Henry won. However, he knew that the only safety he could find was in surrender. So he gave away a ton of his royal rights.
The Prince attempted to take the throne from his father. However, the king's defenders were more numerous and powerful, and the prince withdrew.
The two fighting factions in France had finally found a winner, the orleanists. So Henry the fifth allied himself with the Burgundians. Sparking the war anew.
came to France.
Through a long expedition, Henry V took all the French Strongholds in Normandy.
Heir to the French kingdom, regent, and husband of Charles' daughter.
The French and Scottish (of course) rebelled.
Even though the French and Scots were trying to rebel, the English archers rocked. It wasn't until Joan of arc came that the French could win.
Joan of Arc burned to death.
He married Margaret, who was to make up for Henry's weak will.
In exchange for Henry VI's wife, England gave the French Maine. The English were not enthusiastic.
The rivalries were growing, and the Duke of York, quitted his government of Ireland and landed unbidden in Wales. During the parliamentary session, a member of the commons declared that Duke of York should be named heir. King Henry Vi promised a counsicl would be formed of which he would be a member. the court had to choose between York and Somerset.
The feeling against the crown had grown, and the crown started to lose power. For example, the duke of somerset was being banished, but the royal navy captured his ship and murdered him.
The Lancastrians were being supported by the Yorkists.
Queen Margaret gave birth.
When the King got his memory back, the duke of York ceased to be one of the lord protectors. he relinquished his power. However, he later gathered his forces and waged war in the town of St. Albans. They captured King Henry VI
An uneasy time
The Queen came to assert her son's birthright. She marched into battle and won. While previous battles allowed the peasentry to be spared, here ho such policy was adopted, nor at the future battles.
War started again and the duke of York kept King Henry at Westminster until the king granted him the crown. The Duke was to control the government and succeed the king at his death. Queen Margaret was not amused.
At the first, a bloody combat ensued and the son of the duke of York was victorious. In the second, Queen Margaret got him back.
Although the Queen had regained her husband, she did not march to London, perhaps because the Northern troops were so ferocious. Edward had no such qualms. He had also gained the love of the people. He was Crowned King.
Duke of Somerset was very close to the king and a prominent noble. HE returned to the Lancastrian side, his men came with him. Joining forces with King Henry, the war started anew.
At HEdgely Moor. King Edward was victorious.
Executed by the dozens.
Lancastrian nobles were flooding the mainland, begging for protection and lodging. The French took them in, in order to some day attack England. While some wanted Edward to be in France's favor (being the most powerful country) Edward did not want to become a vassal state. SO he made alliances with Burgundy.
Another main proponent of King Edward the IV, the earl of warwick, tried to depose him. He was defeated and went to France to beg protection.
Warwick met in France with Queen Margaret, and they, with the French King, conspired to overthrow Edward. They marched to London, released Henry VI and gave him a crown.
Edward defeated Margaret, Henry and Warwick, in a series of battles, aided by the treachery of Clarence.
He didn't really want to go into war on France with Burgundy, but parliament did. He invaded, made peace and got tribute.
Clarence was troublesome, so Edward met with parliament to banish his brother.
He was coronated after taking possession of the king's (his brother's) son and taking the crown after declaring them bastards.
HE was preparing to have his son smoothly take the throne. But he died, cause he was promiscuous.
His son died and his wife could bear no more children.
Despite killing her children, declaring her last marriage invalid, she left her sanctuary. She was going to have her eldest daughter married to Richard's rival. TO prevent such an event from happening, Richard promised to provide for the ex queen and find her daughters suitable husbands.
He came from France to fight Richard III. Richard Died. From the marriage, the Tudor line was made.