Political organization: because of the mountains, Greece developed into independent _________________ _____________ (city and the surrounding area).
Important type of government in Athens: _____________ __________.
Athens vs. Sparta?
Eventually all the Greek City-states were conquered by ________________________________.
What 2 advantages does the Mediterranean have that led it to become the place where European civilization was born?
What is a republic?
The Roman empire was known for their architectural achievements, like the __________________ which managed to move water around very long distances.
476 - What ultimately happened to the Roman Empire?
Where was the Byzantine Empire?
Muslims conquered the _____________________ Peninsula and controlled much of it.
Europeans trying to capture ________________________. This was really good for Italy because if you needed to go to the Middle East, you have to go through the Mediterranean.
This was a time of increased _____________________ and _______________________ in Italy.
European population decreased by _________________.
Spanish ____________________ (religion) rulers Ferdinand and Isabella kicked the Muslims out of Spain and funded the age of exploration to the New World.
The Basque separatists are a group of people living in the ___________________ Mountains and demanding _________________________
What countries make up Western Europe?
What are Romance languages? Why are so many of them spoken in Western Europe?
Most of Western Europe devolved into _______________________ after the fall of Rome.
Major government system: _____________________ - where most of the political power rested with _______________, who gave some land to ________________ in exchange for military service.
_________________ was very important
Most important part of the Western Renaissance: First European ____________________ ________________, invented by Johann _________________________.
Definition: Time when many Christians broke away from the _________________ ______________ and formed their own _________________ __________________.
Definition: When ________________________ had complete control over the people. Highly centralized government.
Examples of absolute monarchs:
Nationalism: Belief that you should be loyal to people who share your same ____________________________.
* If you are being ruled by someone who shares your background and heritage, Nationalism means you will be ______________________.
* If you are being ruled by someone different from you, nationalism means you want to __________________________________.
France wanted to throw off their absolute monarchs and establish a _____________________. Wound up with an emperor _____________________, and then eventually went back to a monarchy.
War between the Allies and the Central Powers. Reason why it was a world war: _____________________________________.
War against ____________________________.
Main Axis Powers:
Characterized by the ___________________________ (German dictator Adolf Hitler's system of mass destruction of the _______________).
War of _________________________ vs. ______________________.
Ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
What countries make up Northern Europe?
Characterized by extreme control from the _________________ _________________.
Norse warriors traveled on _____________________ and terrorized coastal cities of Europe. Hit Britain, Iceland, Greenland and even _________________.
________________________________ of Normandy (France) invaded England, forever mixing the 2 areas.
Put limits on the _________________.
Started in __________________________ in the _________________ industry. Spread quickly to the rest of Europe.
The Irish wanted their ______________________________, so Britain divided them and allowed the _____________________ part to be indpendent and the northern part to stay with Britain.
During this time, most countries gave up their _____________________________ because they were too expensive to keep.