built between 1150-1400 C.E., Rising to heaven
initially, and every decade afterwards for two centuries until 15th century
313 C.E. → Constantine issued a decree, allowing Christians to practice religion freely.
380 C.E.→ Theodosius I
395 C.E. → Christianity became recognized
Byzantine Emperor Leo III banned the use of icons in churches and homes, and Byzantine lifted the ban in 843 CE.
Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church got separated
Turks, took over Constantinople.
Henry IV begged forgiveness from Pope Gregory VII.
issued by King Henry II
Barons met King John in Runnymede, beside the River Thames
called together by King Edward I, allowing commoners and lower-ranking officials in the parliament as well as nobles
King Philip VI of France: French fiefs of English King Edward III belonged to him. War broke out in France.
at age 40, received the call, from the angel Gabriel, to be a prophet
Abu Talib and Khadijah both died, the year of sadness
Muhammad left Mecca for Yathrib/ Madinah (Medin)
first year in the Muslim calendar
Muhammad's final pilgrimage to Makkah, and died in Madinah
1st: Abu Bakr, 632-634 CE, united Arabia, carrying teaching beyond Arabia
2nd: Umar 634-644 CE, expand Islam empire; by 643 Muslim empire included Iraq, Persia, Eastern Mediterranean, and North Africa
3rd: Uthman 644-656 CE; a member of the Umayyad clan
Official edition of Qur'an
4th: Ali 656-661 CE, son-in-law of Muhammad's Fatimah (4D) drawing into a civil war → ended through negotiation
Moved capital to Damascus, Syria in 661 CE.
711 CE Muslim conquest spain
732 CE Battle of Tours: Frankish King Charles Martel stopped Muslims
Arab Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Abbasid won.
Turks, founded by Barber
took over by the Great Britain.