Unit 2 (1754 - 1809)

Revolution/Nation Building

Facts and Thoughts

Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to god

1773

Made by ben franklin
Used by thomas jefferson

Thoughts of the New Americans

1776

They believe that they are chosen by god to succeed
They have cast off the monarchy
They are the chosen ones
American Exceptionalism = puritans

"The" Constitutional Debate

1776 - 2000

Two sides: Federalists(Pro-Constitution), Anti-Federalists(Anti-Constitution)

Federalists;
Represented by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
Alexander Hamilton: NORTHERNER
"The passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason without constraints"
Arguments:
Thomas Hobbes
Article. I. (Necessary and Proper Clause)
"To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof"
Article. VI. (Supremacy Clause)
"This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding."
Anti-Federalists:
Represented by Thomas Jefferson: SOUTHERNER
Uses arguments by John Locke
States Rights:
Article. V. (The Elastic Clause)
"The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution."
AmendmentX(Reserved Powers - States' Rights)
"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people"

Analysis of Symbol

1776

E Pluribus Unum = Out of many one
Eagle = freedom
olive branch = peace
head of eagle pointed towards peace

Progression of voting rights

1789 - 1960

1st: white male landowners
2nd: all white men
3rd: all men
4th: all white men
5th: everybody 1960

People

Balancing the debt and creating a solid financial structure

1780

Government should pay speculators of continental currency at par.
Sectionalism: North vs. South
New capital city is in the south(washington dc)
Hamilton argues for a bank of the united states
Opposed by jefferson as unconstitutional
Hamilton cite necessary and proper
gets bank
Takes all of the states debt

John Dickinson

1783 - 1824

Founder of the first government
Quaker
Believes in representation by all and must have complete consent of all the people
Created an extremely weak confederation of states
Government could not:
Tax, Coin Money, Enforce Laws, Regulate Trade

George Washington 1st President

1789 - 1796

Very wealthy elite tobacco farmer who owned plantations with slaves.
Brought in thomas jefferson as a vice to appease the anti-federalists

Washington's Cabinet:
Vice-President: John Adams
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War: Henry Knox

Speculators

1789

People who go around and buy the IOUs for a cheap price.

Citizen Genet

1793

Riles up the people supported by jefferson
Deported for being annoying

Events and Movements

US Treaty of alliance with france spain and britain

1776

1.Acknoleging US as a free, sovereing and independant state

  1. Establishing the boundaries between the U.S. and British North America

  2. Granting fishing rights to the US fisherman

  3. Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to the creditors on either side

  4. The Congress of the Confederation will recognize the rightful owners for all confiscated lands for the british loyalists

  5. Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves).

  6. Great Britain and the United States were each given perpetual access to the Mississippi river
    8.

The construction of the Federal Government of the United States

1787

Replaced the first government
Preamble to the constitution "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
Key Issues concerning the new government
*What kind of structure?
Three Federal Governments:
Executive:
•President
•Has the power to make executive orders to go around the legislative branch
Legislative Branch:
•Make the laws(Congress)
•Has the power to impeach the executive and judicial branches
•If there is a 2/3 vote they can go over the presidents vito
*Judiciary:
•Courts
•Able to limit the actions of both the legislative branch and executive branch
*How powerful will this government be?
•Able to coin money, tax, regulate commerce etc.
•If it is not in the constitution then it is up to the states to decide
*How will the representation of the states be apportioned?
*Is there protection for individual liberties?
*Inspired by league of the Iruqoy
*The constitution is made to balance the power between the federal and state governments who are constantly fighting for control even today and the cities can vote and fight against the state government

Three Federal Governments:
Executive:
President
Legislative Branch:
Make the laws(Congress)
Judiciary:
Courts

Positives from the Articles of Confederation

1787

Land Ordinance of 1785:
*Provided for survey of 36 square mile townships in western territory
*Education Promoted
*1 square mile = 640 acres(Minimum purchase)
*$1 per acre

Northwest Ordinance, 1787:
*Established by Confederation Government
*3-5 New States to be established in northwest territory
*New States would be equal partners to the old ones
*Must have at least 60000 people to join
*Provisions for transition to statehood established; slavery prohibited

Shay's Rebellion

january 1787

Leads a rebellion of 2000 farmers in debt and marches on the boston assembly in springfield MA, which is crushed by the militia
Habeas Corpus = You cannot be held in prison without a charge
Eye opener for the government and the government realizes that they need a more centralized authority

Northwest Territory

1787

No Slavery Allowed

The Judiciary Act

1789

George Washington and congress create a federal court system
Washington is the only president who had the luxury of appointing an entire Supreme Court
John Jay appointed first Chief Justice

Bill of Rights

1791

Allows washington to get support from people who do not like the federal government
Amendment 1: Freedom of speech, religion, petition, assemble, the press, petition the government
Amendment 2: The right to bear arms (not arm bears)
Amendment 3: Protection from the quartering of troops in one's homes
Amendment 4: Protection from unreasonable search and seizure
Amendment 5: Due process of law, no self-incrimination (Habeus Corpus)
Amendment 6: Trial by jury
Amendment 7: Civil Trial by Jury
Amendment 8: Freedom from unusual or cruel punishment
Amendment 9: Reserved Powers for Individuals
Amendment 10: Reserved Powers for States
6th article in the constitution "Necessary and proper clause"

France and England are again at war and neutrality act

1793

Hamilton
We signed a treaty of alliance with the royal government not the current one: do not fight
Jefferson
Help the french
Washington goes with hamilton
Passes a neutrality act becoming isolationalist
Jefferson resigns
sets foreign policy for the next 140 years

The Democratic Republicans

1793

Jefferson founds a new political party after resigning from government forcing the rest into the federalist political party

Whiskey Rebellion

1794

Hamilton chooses to exercise the authority of the federal government by taxing whiskey in western pennsylvania with the plan to exercise other powers to quash this rebellion. George washington rides out with a large force and arrests all the rebellers before pardoning most of them to show that the government could be lenient. Juxtaposes shays rebellion.

The Jay Treaty

1795

Avoided a potentially disastrous war with England
Extremely unpopular with most of the American public who still resented the English because he capitulated to the british
Jefferson led the opposition to the treaty
Southerners pro French
Northerners pro British

Washington's "Prophetic" Farewell Address

1796

It expressed 3 dangers facing the nation

  1. The rise of political factions
  2. The rise of sectionalism: North vs. South
  3. Avoid permanent alliances with other nations (set the limit on presidential terms at two terms)

Election of 1796 John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson

1796

North is voting federalist (Adams) 71 electoral college votes 51%
South is voting democratic - republic (Jefferson) 68 electoral college votes 49%

The XYZ Affair

1797

Seizure of American ships by french due to Jay's Treaty causes Adams to send ambassadors to settle the issues with the french. The french try to extort money from the americans to see the "president". Causes american people to hate the french.

The Alien and Sedition Acts

1798

John Adams and Hamilton pass laws to give their party power
Alien Acts:
Deliberately targeting of french aliens trying to discourage them from joining due to the fat that they would join Jefferson's party.

Sedition Act:
Passed to suppress the slanderous articles made by newspapers to keep the negative opinions off the air.
Used National Security to pass law.
Created by hamilton and madison pushed through adams
government OVERSTEPPING ITS POWER
Madison joins jeffersons party to resist hamilton

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

1798

Madison and Jefferson go to the states and covertly draft legislation. In the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures stating that the Federal government had broken its "Compact" with the people.
Passed to argue that the states are able to nullify laws and refuse or accept federal laws that exceed federal constitutional power.

Election of 1800 The Bloodless Revolution

1800

The first peaceful transition of political power in US History
United States 3rd President is Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican (Jefferson) 73 53%
Federalist (Adams) 65 47%

It was a tie between the Democratic-Republican Jefferson and Burr. Hamilton is to determine who it will be. He is scared of burr and elects jefferson. Aron Burr is VP

Jefferson's Presidency

1801 - 1809

Does not dismantle the federal government
*Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson interprets the US constitution loosely and sent delegates to france to buy land from napoleon for 3 cents an acre. Does this because he needs the money and he cannot hold the land
*Embargo Acts

Marbury vs. Madison

1803

Chief justice John Marshall 1800 - 1833 appointed by John Adams

Marbury is a midnight judge and madison does not allow him to become one. Marbury sues madison.
Marbury loses because the judges find that by supporting madison they are able to show that they have the ultimate power in the constitutionality of laws

Institutions

Electoral College

1789 - 2013

Each state elects a person who votes for the president. The number of electoral votes each state receives is equal to the number of Senators plus the number of House Representatives. The number of senators is fixed at two for a total of 100,but the number of Representatives for each state varies with the population of the state but is always at least one