APUSH Unit 1

Main

Charter Generation

1600 - 1700

the period of time up to 1700 when people were still trying to figure out what it meant to be a slave and what rights slaves had. There weren't many slaves at this point, slavery wasn't much different from indentured servitude (but it was more expensive), and it was easier to discontinue being a slave

ending of monopoly of English Royal Africa Co.

1609

making it easier and cheaper to buy a slave because with competition, prices went down

Petition of Right

1628

signed in England, reminded the King that citizens have certain rights - especially that of Habeas Corpus

Navigation Acts

1651 - 1696

Defined colonies as suppliers of raw materials and markets for goods, no other nations' merchants could trade w/ colonies, commodities from Americas had to be shipped in vessels built in England/Amsterdam, enumerated goods list established, limited manufacturing in colonies, colonies couldn't impose tariffs or print their own money

Glorious Revolution

1688

the parliament deposed King James II, a Roman Catholic who had asserted royal rights over the rights of Parliament. Parliament gave the crown to the King William III and Queen Mary II as joint rulers; influenced the American Revolution

Parliament's Tolerance Act

1689

an act of Parliament granting freedom of worship to non-conformists (i.e. dissenting Protestants such as Baptists and Congregationalists)

English Bill of Rights

1689

signed as part of the Glorious Revolution, Parliament took this chance to establish certain rights belonging to all citizens

Plantation Generation

1700 - 1776

the period of time from 1700-1776 where the institution of slavery was severely tightened in the colonies via slave codes

Salutary Neglect

1721

the English policy pursued by Ropert Walpole of not strictly enforcing the Navigation Acts in its colonies (because it would waste money); this led to more self-government (and hence more expectations of self-government) among colonists

Great Awakening

1730 - 1743

religious revival in the 1730-40s after a period of declining devotion, helped by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; inspired controversy over emotionalism/revivalism (New Lights) versus traditionalist Protestantism (Old Lights), nevertheless helped unite the Americans as a people

Plantation Act

1740

non-British immigrants to British North America were allowed to become naturalized citizens of the colonies upon conversion to Protestantism and the swearing of allegiance to the crown; led to increased immigration

New England

Great Migration

1620 - 1640

the migration of English Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies in the early 1600s. They came in family groups and were motivated by a quest for freedom to practice their Puritan religion

settlement of Plymouth Colony

1620

Puritans wanting to separate from the Church set up a colony at Plymouth in Massachusetts

Mayflower Compact

1620

the first document of self governance in North America; businessmen at Plymouth were deemed equal to Pilgrims to accommodate the businessmen of the Virginia Company who were there

settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony

1628

the Massachusetts Bay Coony founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony in North America, the first major English settlement after Plymouth Colony (John Winthrop)

expulsion of Roger Williams

1635

from Massachusetts for having Quaker-like beliefs

Anti-Nomian controversy

1637

Anne Hutchinson is banished from Boston in 1637 for challenging the authority of the Church -> joins Roger Williams

Pequot War

1637

Puritans wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists teamed up with the Narragansetts and burned down their village

New England Confederation formed

1643

Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies against Indians, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies. It FAILED

death of Massasoit, rise of Metacom

1661

succeeded by Metacom

royal charter for Rhode Island

1663

Roger Williams obtains a royal charter for Rhode Island after settling in Providence years earlier

King Philip's War

1675 - 1678

A series of battles in New Hampshire between the Puritans and the Wompanoaogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The Indians were winning until they were betrayed by the Iroquois. King Philip's head was cut off and placed at the Thanksgiving table

Dominion of New England formed

1686

The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor. The Dominion ended in 1692

Salem Witch Trials

1692

a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts (illustrates the fear and accusation that arose from Puritan beliefs; contrast with Quakers)

Chesapeake Bay

settlement of Jamestown

1607

a group of London investors send ships to Chesapeake Bay; first permanent English colony established

1st Powhatan War

1609 - 1613

the Algonquians recognized that the Virginia Company were not going to ever leave their land, so war broke out. Peace was established when Pocahontas was married off to John Rolfe

First Indentured Servants

1609

Plots of land were granted to anyone who would pay for the transportation costs of a laborer or indentured servant (a result of the small workforce in the Chesapeake due to high mortality rates)

House of Burgesses

1619

the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America. The House was established by the Virginia Company, who created the body to encourage English craftsmen to settle in North America and to make conditions in the colony more agreeable for its inhabitants

2nd Powhatan War

1622 - 1632

Opechanacanough launched a surprise attack on the Virginia Company in order to expel the English for good. The war lasted for 10 years and led to the bankruptcy of Virginia and the destruction of the Powhatan Confederacy

Virginia Slave Laws

1662 - 1670

1662 - children are slave or free depending on mother's status
1667 - baptism doesn't alter a slave's status
1669 - death of a slave during punishment is not felony
1670 - free Africans can't own Christian servants

Bacon's Rebellion

1676

Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers (many of whom were former indentured servnats) were angry at Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Indians after they attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness. Put indentured servitude in a bad light

no interracial sexual relations

1691

slave code established

1705

the previously established laws become part of a code which included: no reading, no assembly, no weapons, harsh physical punishments, no rights in court, no right to leave plantation without written permission

Middle Colonies

Maryland's Act of Toleration

1649

written to ensure Catholics would not be persecuted once the number of Protestants exceeded the number of Catholics in Maryland

settlement of Pennsylvania by William Penn

1681

King Charles II had handed over a large piece of his American land to Penn to satisfy a debt the king owed to his father. The Society of Friends, or Quakers, settled here

Charter of Priveliges

1701

written to outline the privileges of the settlers of Pennsylvania granted by William Penn. Refers to the values of the Quakers and enticed people to come settle the colony

John Peter Zenger Trial

1735

NY newspaper editor is acquitted of charges of libel because jury accepts the argument that if something you write about someone is damaging but true, it cannot be libel

Lower South

Stono Rebellion

1739

in South Carolina, 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. Led to the tightening of slavery