The journey of slaves on slave ships from the coast of Africa to the Americas. Slaves were put in poor conditions to terrorize them.
Trade route of the Atlantic system between Europe, Africa, and th Americas
Wealthy, spent two years in England. Wrote Spirit of the Laws in 1748.
Applied scientific method to study society and politics. Comparative analysis of governmental institutions - realized no one government is best for every situation
Admired the British political system - system of checks and balances where no on government has all of the power to maintain balance of power. His thoughts influenced United States founding fathers.
French philosopher, promoted science, religious tolerance, and freedom of thought. Author of the book Candide which was an indictment of religious fanaticism and superstition.
Was inspired by an earthquake in Portugal. Churches collapsed, tsunami, and many died. German philosopher Leibnite believed the soul is perfected by suffering. Tested by God. Voltaire believed this was ridiculous; that bad things were our fault.
Book was first banned by the church but sold quickly. Can see his hatred of intolerance. We all are children of God
Absolute monarchs influenced by enlightenment ideas who implemented reforms to strengthen their states and make their regimes more efficient
John Locke believed in a constitutional monarchy
Montesquieu believed in checks and balances
Improve society - foster arts, science, education, agriculture, and religious tolerance
Enlighten monarch reject the rule by divine right
Those who where not religious leaders or the aristocracy - where peasants, merchant, etc. Prior to the French Revolution the group asked for more of a voice in the Estates General by instead of one vote for the group, have a counting of heads
Living room gatherings in France where intellectuals gather; typically a woman's living room. Wealthy aristocratic women and elite men (Salonnière)
Dominant intellectual & cultural movement of the 18th century that emphasized man’s use of reason, science, social progress, & happiness
The Age of Reason; Could use reason to understand universe and improve life. Brought on by the scientific revolution but applied that thinking to social science. Idea was to change surroundings and improve happiness
Religious view during the enlightenment that God is like a clockmaker and is not actively involved in the world. Many enlightenment thinkers were deist and attacked the Catholic Church
Declining absolutism in 18th-century France
Louis XV (1715-74)
Financial crisis precipitated by the Seven Years War (1756-63). No new tax, no tax to the wealthiest which were the first and second estates - the nobles and clergy. Relied on loans to pay for Seven Years' War and American Revolution
Allowed thinkers during the Enlightenment period to exchange ideas. Helped to drive the Enlightenment
Enlightenment thinkers in France
an increase in productivity and net output that broke the historical food scarcity cycles.
War that was fought between two alliances of European powers, including a divided Spain, over who had the right to succeed Charles II as king of Spain
Emphasized the importance of sentiment & emotion over reason. Argued that the arts, sciences, & society had corrupted the natural goodness of man. The Social Contract (1762) - Society corrupts man, but could put aside self for common good. Held that the democratic process lends to that - the "general will."
Published treatises for education for children. Champion of childhood education. Actually abandoned all of his children but his confession drew the public to him
Viewed the woman's role to be a good wife and mother. Opponent to that view was Mary Woolstencraft. Development of modern feminist thought
Religious view: Deism - that God is like a clock maker. Isn't actually a part of the world. Many enlightenment thinkers were deist and attacked Catholic church. Increase of Secularism - separation of government and church.
Crime and punishment - Reform of legal and judicial systems. Disapproved of public torture and execution. Punishment should be proportional to the crime. New system of justice. Prison for the purpose of rehabilitation
Wrote many things from sermons to pornographic novels. co-founder in developing a 28 volume encyclopedia to document all of human knowledge. Spent 25 year compiling it. Personally wrote nearly 5,000. Emphasis was placed on practical knowledge. Also contained social commentary.
War that involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg.
Maria Theresa r. 1740-1780
Joseph II r. 1780-1790
Maria was less of an "enlightened" despot than her son Joseph who she ruled jointly with until 1780
Abolished serfdom in 1781
Religious tolerance - Austria was once Catholic - gave rights to Protestants and Jews
Reorganized the bureucracy
Enlightened despot of Prussia (m. d. Germany)
"Philosopher king" - admired Voltaire who was for a time his advisor in Prussia. Saw himself as the "first servant of the state" and sought to benefit the people
Judicial systems - no torture
He was a prominent free African that was abducted. In his autobiography he recounted the horrors of the middle passage. He was freed after serving in the military and became an abolitionist in England. He appealed to the Europeans self-interests.
Prussia and Britain vs. France, Austria, and Russia
Global War: North America, Carribbean, Pacific, India, Europe
The French and Indian war 1754-1763 in North America
North American theatre fight over Canada (New France)
Native Americans allied with French
British blockades and naval victories helped them win the War
Treaty of Paris 1763:
Spain ceded Florida to England; France gave Louisiana to Spain and surrendered Canada and India to the British
Britain became the greatest colonial power
Austria, France, and Russia vs. Prussia and Great Britain
Was a Global war involving North America, Caribbean, Pacific, India, and Europe.
Result was the Treaty of Paris in 1763 where Spain ceded Florida to England; France gave Louisiana to Spain and surrendered Canada to the British
Born in Austria and played for commoners and royalty. These public art exhibitions and public concerts is a way of the diffusing of culture and ideas in the Age of Enlightenment
Enlightened despot of Russia
Was born a Prussian princess
She corresponded with the French philosophes
Used Diderot in an attempt to codify Russian law
Advocated equality of all people
Promoted religious toleration, and education especially to girls
"Golden age of Russia after her rule"
Louis XVI became king in 1774
Married Marie-Antoinette (daughter of Maria Theresa) in 1770
France’s failed Austrian alliance - Though they married to form an alliance there was hostility shown toward Marie-Antoinette and their unconsummated marriage was a source of ridicule
Political pornography - philosophers created literature that put the king and queen in a scandalous light and "desacralized" the monarchy.
The “Desacralization" of the Monarchy
The gradual erosion of the divine sanction that had undergirded the model of royal absolutism
The influence of the philosophes & scandalous, libelous pamphlets
Royal court as immoral - Louis XV had many mistresses which contributed to that view
Costliness of the Seven Years' War damaged Britain and France. Stripped France of New America and changed Britain's relationship with the colonies in North America which lead to the American Revolution
To pay for the cost of war, Britain increased taxes in the American colonies like the Stamp Act of 1756 which was protested, led to riots, and was repealed.
Colonists complained about taxation without representation. They believed they shouldn't be taxed by Britain, and came to see themselves as distinct from Britain
Boston Tea Party 1773 is when American colonists dressed up as Indians and dumped tea at a great cost to Britain
First continental congress at Philadelphia, 1774 - aim was to negotiate with Britain on grievances
Lexington and Concord 1775
Thomas Paine's book Common Sense 1776 - mobilized public support for independence
Declaration of Indepence July 4, 1776
France (as well as Spain & the Dutch Republic) sided with the colonists
British surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia (1781)
Treaty of Paris (1783): recognized American independence
The American revolution & new republic as an embodiment of Enlightenment ideals
The coming of the French Revolution
Man that was a liberalist and was behind the idea of laissez-faire, and wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776 - Age of enlightenment) which was a attack on mercantilism - that it was counter productive - and tariffs. Promoted free trade and the invisible hand.
The working class during the Industrial revolution in Europe (Great Britain). Included factory workers, artisans, craftspeople, and other skilled and unskilled laborers working for wages
The middle class during the Industrial Revolution in Europe (Great Britain). Were the entrepreneurs, professionals, government officials, and shopkeepers. Had the capital and had an antagonistic relationship with the laborers
Was a free person of color who led the Haitian revolution though he had acquired freedom for himself in the 1780's. Was captured by Napoleon when he sought to re-enslave Haiti in the 1800's
an incident in 1785 at the court of Louis XVI of France involving his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. The reputation of the Queen, which was already tarnished by gossip, was ruined by the implication that she had participated in a crime to defraud the crown jewellers of the cost of a very expensive diamond necklace. The Affair was historically significant as one of the events that led to the French populace's disillusionment with the monarchy, which, among other causes, eventually culminated in the French Revolution.
Involved Cardinal de Rohan and Jeanne de la Motte
Slave colony ruled by France. Majority of the Population was enslaved before the revolution. Was the first successful slave uprising. in 1804 former slaves created a republic
Estates General was a body of representatives from all three estates, each state has one vote. 1st and 2nd tend to win out because they have similar interest though the 3rd estate makes up 97% of the population. Meeting was a debate on how the Estates General should vote and 3rd estate did gain more power
Meeting of the National assembly which was composed of the 3rd estate. They invited members of the other estates and pledged not to disband until they created a constitution
Food shortages, peasant uprisings, rumor of Queen Marie Antoinette hoarding food and the peasants attacked the nobility
*Start of the French Revolution. Today still celebrated in France and called Bastille day.
Was a medieval fortress ans was converted into a prison. The king didn't at first recognize the National Assembly and brought in troops. The people responded by storming the prison for weapons and freeing the prisoners
Leader of the Radical Revolution, Reign of Terror and Committee of Public Safety. "The Republic of Virtue" - he sought to rid France of any conspirators. Had Danton and anyone who denounced the Revolution executed. The Thermidor in July 1794 was when he was executed and the Revolution stabilized
Most powerful committee of the National convention lead by 12 men but Danton and Robespierre were the foremost leaders
Time after France was declared a republic and Louis XVI was guillotined, Marat, Danton, and Robespierre led this part of the Radical Revolution where 300,000 men were arrested and 20,000 were executed
Gained power through a coup de'etat when the Directory was struggling with financial issues. He began a military dictatorship. Today some view him as an enlightened ruler and some as an ego maniacal power seeker. Led successful military campaigns and discovered the Rosetta stone. Created a consulate of three where he was the most powerful in 1799 and marked the end of the French Revolution. He crowned himself as Emperor in 1804
Emphasis on individual rights and liberties, the rights of the middle class constitutionalism and free trade
Belief that it was the "White Man's Burden" to capture foreign people but the more altruistic they claimed their pursuits were the more difficult it became for them to justify the harsh treatment
Negative Jewish feeling that was used by governments as a political tool and led to pogroms- government sponsored ethnic cleansing, and Jews migrating from Russia. Led to Zionism for Jews to create a state of their own to get away from Europe
Founder of psychoanalysis, "the unconscious". Was an Austrian physician, techniques still used today. Believed unconscious desires conflict with moral conscious. His views on early childhood were controversial because of his ideas of infantile sexuality
Thought that stemmed from Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Survival of the fittest in society. Don't help the poor because naturally they will die anyways. Rich supported this way of thinking
Politics aimed at strengthening states, not based on theory or ethics but power
Women seeking the right to vote in Europe and the United States
Famous liberal in 19th century. Wrote On Liberty which supported women's rights (when most liberals did not have this view) and free market economy. Champion of democracy, tyranny of the majority - that it could infringe on the rights of others.
Idea of government having a hands-off policy on economy
Prime minister of Prussia and architect of German unification
Emphasis on social equality and collective or public distribution of goods and government involvement in production and distribution of goods.
Emphasis on tradition, order, stability, the monarchy, aristocracy, and the church. Many believed the social classes have their place in society
Led independence movements across Latin America. Lived in France and Supported the American and French revolutions. He was a gifted General and Bolivia is named after him
Meeting of statesmen created after the fall of Napoleon. Dominated by conservative thought. Attended by the Quadruple Alliance who overthrew Napoleon: Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia. It mapped out Europe to check powers. The goal was to prevent revolution and promote peace. Meeting where held on the principles of legitimacy, balance of power, and intervention
Austrian statesman who was the most important attendee at the Conservative order. He was a conservative who championed the monarchy. He restored monarchs to the throne - reinstated Bourbon dynasty in France with Louis 18th. He introduced the idea of intervention when there are attempts of revolution to the Congress of Vienna
Period when Napoleon returned to France from his exile in Elba but was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo and was exiled again
Battle of Napoleon against the British and Prussians during the Hundred Days where he was defeated and exiled a second time
Leader of the Red Shirts during the unification of Italy. Red Shirts were victorious in Sicily and Naples. They were a group of volunteer troop who attacked the two Sicilies and marched to Rome and defeated the Papal States.
Russians vs. The Ottoman Empire, Great Britain and France. Was a bloody, devastating war - Florence Nightingale known for involvement in it. Ended the Concert of Europe which allowed Italy and Germany to unify. The Turks were successful
British Biologist known for his Theory of Evolution
1859 - wrote On the Origin of Species; natural selection, "surival of the fittest",
1871 - wrote The Descent of Man; Human evolution, controversial because it contradicts the Bible
Dutch vs. British
Cecil Rhodes (British) was the Prime minister of the Cape Colony in South Africa and sought to connect rulership from cape to cape. The British defeated the Dutch and in 1910 it became the Union of Africa
Was the king of Belgium. He gained the Congo by deception saying that he would end slavery and convinced Europeans he was going to form the Congo Free State. He actually made the people his personal slaves during his reign of 23 years. He cruelly forced the people to cultivate rubber. The population of 20 million was cut in half due to his cruelty.
Wrote "The White Man's Burden" which was a commentary on European imperialism and that the civilizing mission is a burden of the white man but that it was his moral duty to capture them