HY 102 EXAM 2


The middle passage

1501 - 1900

The journey of slaves on slave ships from the coast of Africa to the Americas. Slaves were put in poor conditions to terrorize them.

Triangular Trade

1501 - 1900

Trade route of the Atlantic system between Europe, Africa, and th Americas


1689 - 1755

Wealthy, spent two years in England. Wrote Spirit of the Laws in 1748.
Applied scientific method to study society and politics. Comparative analysis of governmental institutions - realized no one government is best for every situation
Admired the British political system - system of checks and balances where no on government has all of the power to maintain balance of power. His thoughts influenced United States founding fathers.


1694 - 1778

French philosopher, promoted science, religious tolerance, and freedom of thought. Author of the book Candide which was an indictment of religious fanaticism and superstition.

Was inspired by an earthquake in Portugal. Churches collapsed, tsunami, and many died. German philosopher Leibnite believed the soul is perfected by suffering. Tested by God. Voltaire believed this was ridiculous; that bad things were our fault.

Book was first banned by the church but sold quickly. Can see his hatred of intolerance. We all are children of God

Enlightened Despots (Enlightened Absolutists)

1701 - 1800

Absolute monarchs influenced by enlightenment ideas who implemented reforms to strengthen their states and make their regimes more efficient

John Locke believed in a constitutional monarchy
Montesquieu believed in checks and balances

Reforms to:
Strengthen state
Improve society - foster arts, science, education, agriculture, and religious tolerance

Enlighten monarch reject the rule by divine right

The Third Estate

1701 - 1800

Those who where not religious leaders or the aristocracy - where peasants, merchant, etc. Prior to the French Revolution the group asked for more of a voice in the Estates General by instead of one vote for the group, have a counting of heads

Salons/ Salonnière

1701 - 1800

Living room gatherings in France where intellectuals gather; typically a woman's living room. Wealthy aristocratic women and elite men (Salonnière)

The Enlightenment

1701 - 1800

Dominant intellectual & cultural movement of the 18th century that emphasized man’s use of reason, science, social progress, & happiness

The Age of Reason; Could use reason to understand universe and improve life. Brought on by the scientific revolution but applied that thinking to social science. Idea was to change surroundings and improve happiness


1701 - 1800

Religious view during the enlightenment that God is like a clockmaker and is not actively involved in the world. Many enlightenment thinkers were deist and attacked the Catholic Church

Pre-Revolutionary France

1701 - 1785

Declining absolutism in 18th-century France

Louis XV (1715-74)

Financial crisis precipitated by the Seven Years War (1756-63). No new tax, no tax to the wealthiest which were the first and second estates - the nobles and clergy. Relied on loans to pay for Seven Years' War and American Revolution

"The Republic of Letters"

1701 - 1800

Allowed thinkers during the Enlightenment period to exchange ideas. Helped to drive the Enlightenment


1701 - 1800

Enlightenment thinkers in France

Agricultural Revolution

1701 - 1800

an increase in productivity and net output that broke the historical food scarcity cycles.

The War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

War that was fought between two alliances of European powers, including a divided Spain, over who had the right to succeed Charles II as king of Spain

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Emphasized the importance of sentiment & emotion over reason. Argued that the arts, sciences, & society had corrupted the natural goodness of man. The Social Contract (1762) - Society corrupts man, but could put aside self for common good. Held that the democratic process lends to that - the "general will."

Published treatises for education for children. Champion of childhood education. Actually abandoned all of his children but his confession drew the public to him

Viewed the woman's role to be a good wife and mother. Opponent to that view was Mary Woolstencraft. Development of modern feminist thought

Religious view: Deism - that God is like a clock maker. Isn't actually a part of the world. Many enlightenment thinkers were deist and attacked Catholic church. Increase of Secularism - separation of government and church.

Crime and punishment - Reform of legal and judicial systems. Disapproved of public torture and execution. Punishment should be proportional to the crime. New system of justice. Prison for the purpose of rehabilitation

Diderot and the Encyclopedia

1713 - 1784

Wrote many things from sermons to pornographic novels. co-founder in developing a 28 volume encyclopedia to document all of human knowledge. Spent 25 year compiling it. Personally wrote nearly 5,000. Emphasis was placed on practical knowledge. Also contained social commentary.

The War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War that involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg.

Maria Theresa & Joseph II of Austria

1740 - 1790

Maria Theresa r. 1740-1780
Joseph II r. 1780-1790
Hapsburg empire.
Maria was less of an "enlightened" despot than her son Joseph who she ruled jointly with until 1780
Centralized power
Abolished serfdom in 1781
Education reform
Religious tolerance - Austria was once Catholic - gave rights to Protestants and Jews
Reorganized the bureucracy

Frederick II (Frederick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Enlightened despot of Prussia (m. d. Germany)

"Philosopher king" - admired Voltaire who was for a time his advisor in Prussia. Saw himself as the "first servant of the state" and sought to benefit the people

Judicial systems - no torture
Religious toleration
Centralized power

Olaudah Equiano

1745 - 1797

He was a prominent free African that was abducted. In his autobiography he recounted the horrors of the middle passage. He was freed after serving in the military and became an abolitionist in England. He appealed to the Europeans self-interests.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Prussia and Britain vs. France, Austria, and Russia
Global War: North America, Carribbean, Pacific, India, Europe
The French and Indian war 1754-1763 in North America
North American theatre fight over Canada (New France)
Native Americans allied with French
British blockades and naval victories helped them win the War

Treaty of Paris 1763:
Spain ceded Florida to England; France gave Louisiana to Spain and surrendered Canada and India to the British
Britain became the greatest colonial power

The Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria, France, and Russia vs. Prussia and Great Britain

Was a Global war involving North America, Caribbean, Pacific, India, and Europe.

Result was the Treaty of Paris in 1763 where Spain ceded Florida to England; France gave Louisiana to Spain and surrendered Canada to the British


1756 - 1791

Born in Austria and played for commoners and royalty. These public art exhibitions and public concerts is a way of the diffusing of culture and ideas in the Age of Enlightenment

Empress Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 - 1796

Enlightened despot of Russia
Was born a Prussian princess
She corresponded with the French philosophes
Used Diderot in an attempt to codify Russian law
Advocated equality of all people
Promoted religious toleration, and education especially to girls
"Golden age of Russia after her rule"

Louis XVI & Marie-Antoinette


Louis XVI became king in 1774
Married Marie-Antoinette (daughter of Maria Theresa) in 1770
France’s failed Austrian alliance - Though they married to form an alliance there was hostility shown toward Marie-Antoinette and their unconsummated marriage was a source of ridicule
Political pornography - philosophers created literature that put the king and queen in a scandalous light and "desacralized" the monarchy.

The “Desacralization" of the Monarchy

The gradual erosion of the divine sanction that had undergirded the model of royal absolutism

The influence of the philosophes & scandalous, libelous pamphlets

Royal court as immoral - Louis XV had many mistresses which contributed to that view

The American Revoultionary War

1775 - 1783

Costliness of the Seven Years' War damaged Britain and France. Stripped France of New America and changed Britain's relationship with the colonies in North America which lead to the American Revolution

To pay for the cost of war, Britain increased taxes in the American colonies like the Stamp Act of 1756 which was protested, led to riots, and was repealed.

Colonists complained about taxation without representation. They believed they shouldn't be taxed by Britain, and came to see themselves as distinct from Britain

Boston Tea Party 1773 is when American colonists dressed up as Indians and dumped tea at a great cost to Britain

First continental congress at Philadelphia, 1774 - aim was to negotiate with Britain on grievances

Lexington and Concord 1775

Thomas Paine's book Common Sense 1776 - mobilized public support for independence

Declaration of Indepence July 4, 1776

France (as well as Spain & the Dutch Republic) sided with the colonists

British surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia (1781)

Treaty of Paris (1783): recognized American independence

The American revolution & new republic as an embodiment of Enlightenment ideals

The coming of the French Revolution

Adam Smith


Man that was a liberalist and was behind the idea of laissez-faire, and wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776 - Age of enlightenment) which was a attack on mercantilism - that it was counter productive - and tariffs. Promoted free trade and the invisible hand.


1780 - 1850

The working class during the Industrial revolution in Europe (Great Britain). Included factory workers, artisans, craftspeople, and other skilled and unskilled laborers working for wages


1780 - 1850

The middle class during the Industrial Revolution in Europe (Great Britain). Were the entrepreneurs, professionals, government officials, and shopkeepers. Had the capital and had an antagonistic relationship with the laborers

Toussaint Louverture

1780 - 1804

Was a free person of color who led the Haitian revolution though he had acquired freedom for himself in the 1780's. Was captured by Napoleon when he sought to re-enslave Haiti in the 1800's

Diamond Necklace Affair


an incident in 1785 at the court of Louis XVI of France involving his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. The reputation of the Queen, which was already tarnished by gossip, was ruined by the implication that she had participated in a crime to defraud the crown jewellers of the cost of a very expensive diamond necklace. The Affair was historically significant as one of the events that led to the French populace's disillusionment with the monarchy, which, among other causes, eventually culminated in the French Revolution.

Involved Cardinal de Rohan and Jeanne de la Motte

Saint Domingue

1789 - 1804

Slave colony ruled by France. Majority of the Population was enslaved before the revolution. Was the first successful slave uprising. in 1804 former slaves created a republic

The Meeting of the Estates General

May 1789

Estates General was a body of representatives from all three estates, each state has one vote. 1st and 2nd tend to win out because they have similar interest though the 3rd estate makes up 97% of the population. Meeting was a debate on how the Estates General should vote and 3rd estate did gain more power

Tennis Court Oath

June 1789

Meeting of the National assembly which was composed of the 3rd estate. They invited members of the other estates and pledged not to disband until they created a constitution

Great Fear

July 1789

Food shortages, peasant uprisings, rumor of Queen Marie Antoinette hoarding food and the peasants attacked the nobility

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

*Start of the French Revolution. Today still celebrated in France and called Bastille day.

Was a medieval fortress ans was converted into a prison. The king didn't at first recognize the National Assembly and brought in troops. The people responded by storming the prison for weapons and freeing the prisoners

Maximilien Robespierre

1792 - 1794

Leader of the Radical Revolution, Reign of Terror and Committee of Public Safety. "The Republic of Virtue" - he sought to rid France of any conspirators. Had Danton and anyone who denounced the Revolution executed. The Thermidor in July 1794 was when he was executed and the Revolution stabilized

Committee of Public Safety

1793 - 1794

Most powerful committee of the National convention lead by 12 men but Danton and Robespierre were the foremost leaders

The Terror (Reign of Terror)

September 1793 - July 1794

Time after France was declared a republic and Louis XVI was guillotined, Marat, Danton, and Robespierre led this part of the Radical Revolution where 300,000 men were arrested and 20,000 were executed

Napolean Bonoparte

1796 - 1815

Gained power through a coup de'etat when the Directory was struggling with financial issues. He began a military dictatorship. Today some view him as an enlightened ruler and some as an ego maniacal power seeker. Led successful military campaigns and discovered the Rosetta stone. Created a consulate of three where he was the most powerful in 1799 and marked the end of the French Revolution. He crowned himself as Emperor in 1804


1801 - 1900

Emphasis on individual rights and liberties, the rights of the middle class constitutionalism and free trade

Civilizing mission

1801 - 1900

Belief that it was the "White Man's Burden" to capture foreign people but the more altruistic they claimed their pursuits were the more difficult it became for them to justify the harsh treatment


1801 - 1900

Negative Jewish feeling that was used by governments as a political tool and led to pogroms- government sponsored ethnic cleansing, and Jews migrating from Russia. Led to Zionism for Jews to create a state of their own to get away from Europe

Sigmund Freud

1801 - 1900

Founder of psychoanalysis, "the unconscious". Was an Austrian physician, techniques still used today. Believed unconscious desires conflict with moral conscious. His views on early childhood were controversial because of his ideas of infantile sexuality

Social Darwinism

1801 - 1900

Thought that stemmed from Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Survival of the fittest in society. Don't help the poor because naturally they will die anyways. Rich supported this way of thinking


1801 - 1900

Politics aimed at strengthening states, not based on theory or ethics but power


1801 - 1900

Women seeking the right to vote in Europe and the United States

John Stuart Mill

1801 - 1900

Famous liberal in 19th century. Wrote On Liberty which supported women's rights (when most liberals did not have this view) and free market economy. Champion of democracy, tyranny of the majority - that it could infringe on the rights of others.


1801 - 1900

Idea of government having a hands-off policy on economy

Otto von Bismark

1801 - 1900

Prime minister of Prussia and architect of German unification


1801 - 1900

Emphasis on social equality and collective or public distribution of goods and government involvement in production and distribution of goods.


1801 - 1900

Emphasis on tradition, order, stability, the monarchy, aristocracy, and the church. Many believed the social classes have their place in society

Simon Bolivar

1810 - 1830

Led independence movements across Latin America. Lived in France and Supported the American and French revolutions. He was a gifted General and Bolivia is named after him

The Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Meeting of statesmen created after the fall of Napoleon. Dominated by conservative thought. Attended by the Quadruple Alliance who overthrew Napoleon: Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia. It mapped out Europe to check powers. The goal was to prevent revolution and promote peace. Meeting where held on the principles of legitimacy, balance of power, and intervention

Klemens Von Metternich

1814 - 1815

Austrian statesman who was the most important attendee at the Conservative order. He was a conservative who championed the monarchy. He restored monarchs to the throne - reinstated Bourbon dynasty in France with Louis 18th. He introduced the idea of intervention when there are attempts of revolution to the Congress of Vienna

Hundred Days


Period when Napoleon returned to France from his exile in Elba but was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo and was exiled again


June 1815

Battle of Napoleon against the British and Prussians during the Hundred Days where he was defeated and exiled a second time

Guiseppe Garibaldi

1850 - 1917

Leader of the Red Shirts during the unification of Italy. Red Shirts were victorious in Sicily and Naples. They were a group of volunteer troop who attacked the two Sicilies and marched to Rome and defeated the Papal States.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Russians vs. The Ottoman Empire, Great Britain and France. Was a bloody, devastating war - Florence Nightingale known for involvement in it. Ended the Concert of Europe which allowed Italy and Germany to unify. The Turks were successful

Charles Darwin

1859 - 1871

British Biologist known for his Theory of Evolution
1859 - wrote On the Origin of Species; natural selection, "surival of the fittest",

1871 - wrote The Descent of Man; Human evolution, controversial because it contradicts the Bible

The Boer Wars

1880 - 1890

Dutch vs. British

Cecil Rhodes (British) was the Prime minister of the Cape Colony in South Africa and sought to connect rulership from cape to cape. The British defeated the Dutch and in 1910 it became the Union of Africa

Leopold II

1885 - 1908

Was the king of Belgium. He gained the Congo by deception saying that he would end slavery and convinced Europeans he was going to form the Congo Free State. He actually made the people his personal slaves during his reign of 23 years. He cruelly forced the people to cultivate rubber. The population of 20 million was cut in half due to his cruelty.

Rudyard Kipling


Wrote "The White Man's Burden" which was a commentary on European imperialism and that the civilizing mission is a burden of the white man but that it was his moral duty to capture them