Civil Rights Exam

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Black Power

Booker T Washington

1856 - 1912

Booker T Washington was a seperatist civil rights figure who advocated for economic freedom and self-sufficiency for African Americans. His vision was conflicting with similarly prominent WEB Debois, who advocated for integration and black rights in white society

WEB Debois

1868 - 1993

With a conflicting view of Booker T Washington, WEB Debois was an integrationist, founder of the NAACP in 1909, and believed in full rights in white society.

Harlem Renaissance

1910 - 1940

A literary, artistic and intellectual movement in the African American neighborhood Harlem (in segregated NY), produced some of the best works of literature and art in the 20th century. It was meant to inspire African Americans and articulated some of the pain and confusion of being Black in America, or as WEB Debois said, a "double consciousness"

The Universal Negro Improvement Association

1916 - 1920

Lead by Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican who moved to Harlem, led the "Back to Africa" Movement. He sold shares on a steamship going to Africa, a true entrepreneur.

Culsa 'Race Riot'

1921

Led by Cyril Briggs, the African Blood Brotherhood, was based in a socialist agenda, insisting that the true inequalities lay in economical inequity. He pushed a Marxist Revolutionary agenda, but with fleeting influence. The most recognition for the ABB was during the "Race Riot" of 1912, where Blacks' houses and businesses were burned by white supremacists.

Malcom X (Formerly known as Malcom Little)

1925 - 1965

Following the teachings of Elijah Muhammed and the Nation of Islam, Malcom X was the icon for Black Power and Nationalism during the 1950s and 60s. He advocated for separation from the white race, not integration, and for the ability to use self-defense in the face of bigoted brutality. He was killed in 1965 by Elijah Muhammed followers, saying he strayed from the founders vision. He influenced the path of the civil rights movement, calling for an overhaul of the system, not a gradual shift in agenda.

Founding of Nation of Islam

1940

Original founder murdered, Elijah Muhammad leads the Nation of Islam, based in Detroit, with a focus in racial liberation and empowerment of Black people. The agenda was very controversial, explicitly anti-white.

Urban Rebellions

1964 - 1968

Known as "riots," urban rebellions were a series of violent actions, rebelling against white impunity in more than 300 cities across the United States, primarily in the Midwest and North. The first broke in Watts, CA, and continued through the mid 1960s, and a new wave was sparked after MLK's assassination in 1968. The forced the American people to confront the issue.

SNCC Expels White Members

1966

The chairman of SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee), Stokely Carmichael expelled all white members. He told them to go into their own white communities, because of racism so ingrained, this prejudice could never be eliminated and SNCC wanted to empower the black organizers.

Kerner Commission

1968

President Johnson put together the Kerner Commission in the wake of the Urban Rebellions, and resulted in a public report, stating that the United States is "moving towards two societies" and the things are in fact "separate and unequal."

19th Ammendment

1971

18 year olds right to vote

Legislative Efforts in the Civil Rights Movement

13th Amendment

1864

Ends slavery in the United States

14th Ammendment

1868

equal protection under the law to all persons born or naturalized in the United States.

The Naturalization Act of 1870

1870

Extends citizenship to Blacks, but excludes Asians. Repeals the Naturalization of 1790, stating that only white men of "good moral character" are citizens.

15th Amendment

1870

Equal voting rights to all males, regardless of race or ethnicity

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

First act to exclude a specific ethnic group. It was the first of many racist acts to purposely exclude groups from emigrating to the United States, setting a dangerous precedent.

NAACP

1909 - Present

Founded by three civil rights activists in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was initially founded in hopes of getting legislation passed against lynching. Although it never passed, the NAACP has pushed for momentous decisions and legislative efforts in the Civil Rights Movement and into the present.

National Origins Act

1924

English, Irish, Germans and Scandinavians allowed to emigrate, all others excluded.

First Nations Citizenship

1924

Democratic Part splits

1948

After the 1948 Democratic National Convention, the Democratic party splits, introducing a new party the "states rights" party, or the dixicrats. they realize the South bloc of democrats was a liability, and the party is revolutionized.

Civil Rights Act of 1957

1957

Pushed by then senator, Lindon Johnson, it was the first civil rights act passed in 80 years. Although it had no real teeth in enforcement, it was passed to disable racist voter suppression. It was the first of several acts passed by the future vice president and president, changing de jure white supremacy in the United States.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

Pushed by President Lyndon Johnson, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a momentous bill that outlawed major forms of discrimination against women and people of color. It banned segregation in schools and outlawed discrimination in public accommodations.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a comprehensive addition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which outlawed voter tests or practices, which limited people of color in voting, using fear and impunity.

Immigration and Nationality Act

1965

President Johnson signs at the foot of the statue of liberty. It Abolished "racial" and national quotas.

Civil Rights Act of 1968

1968

Following Dr MLKs assassination, LBJ used the horrendous event to push his final civil rights act during his presidency. This bill outlawed discrimination in housing.

Executive efforts for the Civil rights movement

Lyndon B Johnson

1908 - 1973

House rep, senator, vice president and president, he was a commanding legislative force in the house, congress and the west wing. He ran on the "Austin-Boston" ticket with JFK in 1960, and when JFK was assassinated in 1963, he assumed his presidency. He passed the most civil rights legislation of any president and the most meaningful.

Executive Order #8802

1941

Franklin D Roosevelt Executive Order- "The Fair Employment Act" which states that any business which receives federal money cannot use any discriminatory practices.

Executive Order #9981

1948

Harry Truman signs Executive Order #9981 which integrates the military in 1948. Harry Truman also meets with NAACP leaders, further alienating the Southern Democrats

President Eisenhower intervenes in the Little Rock Crisis

1957

Alex Wilson, an investigative journalist for a Black newspaper, went to Little Rock to cover the crisis, but was brutally attacked by the white mob. This is captured on film and President Eisenhower sees this veteran being brutally wounded and sends 1000 US troops to intervene in Little Rock.

LBJ as president

1963 - 1968

Hubert Humphrey as vice president, a MN senator who introduced civil rights in the democratic platform in 1948.

JFK Civil Rights Speech

June 12, 1963

In his first speech dedicated to the civil rights platform, JFK gives a momentous and nationally broadcasted appeal to the American people. Hours after the speech, Medgar Evans was assassinated.

Democratic National Convention

1964

Taking place in Atlantic city, there is an emergence of the "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party," arguing that since African Americans are not able to vote in Miss. (and beyond), that the delegates were illegal and not representing the public. The VP, Fannie Lou Hamer, talked to Hubert Humphrey and her gave her two delegates, but the protest lasts.

Direct Action

Bayard Rustin

1912 - 1987

Bayard Rustin, a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, trained SNCC students in the practices of non-violence and organized such major actions as the March on Washington (1963). He was known to be gay, and therefor MLK asked him to take a less public role in the movement. However, he organized one of the biggest protests in American history, and introduced major speakers at the event. His direct action knowledge and beliefs helped form the movement and the successes of the 1960s.

Great Migration I

1916 - 1930

During WWI, manufacturing jobs in Northern cities and Southern African Americans move in huge numbers for better wages and treatment.

Martin Luther King Jr.

1929 - 1968

Great Migration II

1940 - 1970

With the second WW, there is another surge of African Americans to Northern cities for jobs.

Montgomery Improvement Association

1955 - 1956

The Montgomery Improvement Association was co-led by MLK, following Rosa Park's refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery public bus. The Association led a 388 day boycott of the bus system, resulting in a total integration of the buses.

Little Rock Schools shut down

September 1958 - June 1959

After the Little Rock Crisis of 1957, Governor Orval Faubus shuts down the schools for the next school year. Because the public is so frustrated with the dysfunction, the public elects a integrationist school board, helping the integration of the AK schools.

The Birmingham Campaing

1963

The Birmingham Campaign was organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which MLK co-founded. In the most violent year so far in the civil rights movement, Martin Luther King helped lead this movement in direct action end segregation in downtown accommodations and end discrimination in job opportunities. They did this by boycotts, sit-ins and large marches with many students. After businesses broke their agreement, sit-ins became a large focus. It included the "Children's Crusade," which MLK advocated for in including young students in the fight against inequality.

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

1963

The March on Washington was organized by Bayard Rustin, and was a huge protest, most taking place in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where MLK gave his famous "I have a dream" speech. It was for racial equality as well as advocating for working people, and the ability to live and work in a humane fashion.

Bombing of Birmingham Baptist Church

September 15, 1963

Bomb kills 4 girls heading down to Sunday School. Event prompts Chuck Morgan, a Birmingham attorney, to give a speech to the Birmingham Young Men's Business Club about blame, and every complacent fence sitter in Birmingham. He is ostracized in Birmingham and leaves the city to work for the ACLU in Atlanta,

Freedom Summer

1964

Freedom Summer was an effort in the South by young student organizers from CORE and SNCC to register people to vote and run Freedom Schools. It was a dangerous summer, resulting in the killing of three activists.

Selma to Montgomery Marches

March, 1965

Led by the Dallas County Voters League and SNCC, following the Voting Rights Act of 1965, people marched from Selma to Montgomery, the capital, to register voters and to signal solidarity with black voters. State troopers attack the peaceful marches, prompting LBJ to speak to the nation, using the African American spiritual and civil rights anthem "And we shall overcome" in his national address. Eventually the marchers, on the third try, reach Montgomery, completing their successful action.

Judicial Efforts in Civil Rights Movement

Plessy v Ferguson

1896

Supreme court decision that resulted in the "Separate but Equal" doctrine, lasting 56 years of Jim Crow Laws and racial segregation, until Brown v Board of Ed.

Wong Kim Ark v US

1898

Rules that Chinese born in the US cannot be stripped of citizenship- confirms 14th amendment for Chinese

Scottsboro Boys

1931

9 boys were tried for rape of a white woman in 1931, and even though the accuser eventually came out as a witness for the defense, the all-white jury still convicted all 9 boys in Alabama. The defense was sponsored by the American Communist Party and launched the party in the black community, especially. This case ended all-white juries in the South, and nationalized the miscarriage of justice in the South for black defendants.

Charleston Integrated

1954

Because of Dale Bumpers' support of the movement, then City Attorney for Charleston, Charleston was integrated. He was a courageous advocated for the civil rights movement.

Brown v Board of Education Topeka, KS

May 17, 1954

Supreme Court unanimous decision that overrules Separate but Equal Doctrine,establishing that the doctrine psychologically impacts black students beyond facilities. President Marshall recruited plaintiffs in his struggle to challenge school segregation, including recruiting Brown and his daughter. With the aid of lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston, test cases around the country helped set form the agenda in the court decision, establishing and challenging what is equal.

Brown II

1955

In an addendum to the original decision, the Supreme Court releases Brown II, leaving the integration of the public schools to the district courts because of sheer scale. They are told to use "all deliberate speed". The result is tumultuous and snail-like in pace.

Browder v Gayle

1956

Ruling that bus segregation is unlawful, pushing the Supreme Court to declare that segregation is unconstitutional

The Mississippi Burning Trial

1964

During Freedom Summer, three activists were killed by off-duty police force members for their work registering voters. The murders were each given six years, a momentous event because they in fact received any jail time at all.