Booker T Washington was a seperatist civil rights figure who advocated for economic freedom and self-sufficiency for African Americans. His vision was conflicting with similarly prominent WEB Debois, who advocated for integration and black rights in white society
With a conflicting view of Booker T Washington, WEB Debois was an integrationist, founder of the NAACP in 1909, and believed in full rights in white society.
A literary, artistic and intellectual movement in the African American neighborhood Harlem (in segregated NY), produced some of the best works of literature and art in the 20th century. It was meant to inspire African Americans and articulated some of the pain and confusion of being Black in America, or as WEB Debois said, a "double consciousness"
Lead by Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican who moved to Harlem, led the "Back to Africa" Movement. He sold shares on a steamship going to Africa, a true entrepreneur.
Led by Cyril Briggs, the African Blood Brotherhood, was based in a socialist agenda, insisting that the true inequalities lay in economical inequity. He pushed a Marxist Revolutionary agenda, but with fleeting influence. The most recognition for the ABB was during the "Race Riot" of 1912, where Blacks' houses and businesses were burned by white supremacists.
Following the teachings of Elijah Muhammed and the Nation of Islam, Malcom X was the icon for Black Power and Nationalism during the 1950s and 60s. He advocated for separation from the white race, not integration, and for the ability to use self-defense in the face of bigoted brutality. He was killed in 1965 by Elijah Muhammed followers, saying he strayed from the founders vision. He influenced the path of the civil rights movement, calling for an overhaul of the system, not a gradual shift in agenda.
Original founder murdered, Elijah Muhammad leads the Nation of Islam, based in Detroit, with a focus in racial liberation and empowerment of Black people. The agenda was very controversial, explicitly anti-white.
Known as "riots," urban rebellions were a series of violent actions, rebelling against white impunity in more than 300 cities across the United States, primarily in the Midwest and North. The first broke in Watts, CA, and continued through the mid 1960s, and a new wave was sparked after MLK's assassination in 1968. The forced the American people to confront the issue.
The chairman of SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee), Stokely Carmichael expelled all white members. He told them to go into their own white communities, because of racism so ingrained, this prejudice could never be eliminated and SNCC wanted to empower the black organizers.
President Johnson put together the Kerner Commission in the wake of the Urban Rebellions, and resulted in a public report, stating that the United States is "moving towards two societies" and the things are in fact "separate and unequal."
18 year olds right to vote
Ends slavery in the United States
equal protection under the law to all persons born or naturalized in the United States.
Extends citizenship to Blacks, but excludes Asians. Repeals the Naturalization of 1790, stating that only white men of "good moral character" are citizens.
Equal voting rights to all males, regardless of race or ethnicity
First act to exclude a specific ethnic group. It was the first of many racist acts to purposely exclude groups from emigrating to the United States, setting a dangerous precedent.
Founded by three civil rights activists in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was initially founded in hopes of getting legislation passed against lynching. Although it never passed, the NAACP has pushed for momentous decisions and legislative efforts in the Civil Rights Movement and into the present.
English, Irish, Germans and Scandinavians allowed to emigrate, all others excluded.
After the 1948 Democratic National Convention, the Democratic party splits, introducing a new party the "states rights" party, or the dixicrats. they realize the South bloc of democrats was a liability, and the party is revolutionized.
Pushed by then senator, Lindon Johnson, it was the first civil rights act passed in 80 years. Although it had no real teeth in enforcement, it was passed to disable racist voter suppression. It was the first of several acts passed by the future vice president and president, changing de jure white supremacy in the United States.
Pushed by President Lyndon Johnson, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a momentous bill that outlawed major forms of discrimination against women and people of color. It banned segregation in schools and outlawed discrimination in public accommodations.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a comprehensive addition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which outlawed voter tests or practices, which limited people of color in voting, using fear and impunity.
President Johnson signs at the foot of the statue of liberty. It Abolished "racial" and national quotas.
Following Dr MLKs assassination, LBJ used the horrendous event to push his final civil rights act during his presidency. This bill outlawed discrimination in housing.
House rep, senator, vice president and president, he was a commanding legislative force in the house, congress and the west wing. He ran on the "Austin-Boston" ticket with JFK in 1960, and when JFK was assassinated in 1963, he assumed his presidency. He passed the most civil rights legislation of any president and the most meaningful.
Franklin D Roosevelt Executive Order- "The Fair Employment Act" which states that any business which receives federal money cannot use any discriminatory practices.
Harry Truman signs Executive Order #9981 which integrates the military in 1948. Harry Truman also meets with NAACP leaders, further alienating the Southern Democrats
Alex Wilson, an investigative journalist for a Black newspaper, went to Little Rock to cover the crisis, but was brutally attacked by the white mob. This is captured on film and President Eisenhower sees this veteran being brutally wounded and sends 1000 US troops to intervene in Little Rock.
Hubert Humphrey as vice president, a MN senator who introduced civil rights in the democratic platform in 1948.
In his first speech dedicated to the civil rights platform, JFK gives a momentous and nationally broadcasted appeal to the American people. Hours after the speech, Medgar Evans was assassinated.
Taking place in Atlantic city, there is an emergence of the "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party," arguing that since African Americans are not able to vote in Miss. (and beyond), that the delegates were illegal and not representing the public. The VP, Fannie Lou Hamer, talked to Hubert Humphrey and her gave her two delegates, but the protest lasts.
Bayard Rustin, a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, trained SNCC students in the practices of non-violence and organized such major actions as the March on Washington (1963). He was known to be gay, and therefor MLK asked him to take a less public role in the movement. However, he organized one of the biggest protests in American history, and introduced major speakers at the event. His direct action knowledge and beliefs helped form the movement and the successes of the 1960s.
During WWI, manufacturing jobs in Northern cities and Southern African Americans move in huge numbers for better wages and treatment.
With the second WW, there is another surge of African Americans to Northern cities for jobs.
The Montgomery Improvement Association was co-led by MLK, following Rosa Park's refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery public bus. The Association led a 388 day boycott of the bus system, resulting in a total integration of the buses.
After the Little Rock Crisis of 1957, Governor Orval Faubus shuts down the schools for the next school year. Because the public is so frustrated with the dysfunction, the public elects a integrationist school board, helping the integration of the AK schools.
The Birmingham Campaign was organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which MLK co-founded. In the most violent year so far in the civil rights movement, Martin Luther King helped lead this movement in direct action end segregation in downtown accommodations and end discrimination in job opportunities. They did this by boycotts, sit-ins and large marches with many students. After businesses broke their agreement, sit-ins became a large focus. It included the "Children's Crusade," which MLK advocated for in including young students in the fight against inequality.
The March on Washington was organized by Bayard Rustin, and was a huge protest, most taking place in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where MLK gave his famous "I have a dream" speech. It was for racial equality as well as advocating for working people, and the ability to live and work in a humane fashion.
Bomb kills 4 girls heading down to Sunday School. Event prompts Chuck Morgan, a Birmingham attorney, to give a speech to the Birmingham Young Men's Business Club about blame, and every complacent fence sitter in Birmingham. He is ostracized in Birmingham and leaves the city to work for the ACLU in Atlanta,
Freedom Summer was an effort in the South by young student organizers from CORE and SNCC to register people to vote and run Freedom Schools. It was a dangerous summer, resulting in the killing of three activists.
Led by the Dallas County Voters League and SNCC, following the Voting Rights Act of 1965, people marched from Selma to Montgomery, the capital, to register voters and to signal solidarity with black voters. State troopers attack the peaceful marches, prompting LBJ to speak to the nation, using the African American spiritual and civil rights anthem "And we shall overcome" in his national address. Eventually the marchers, on the third try, reach Montgomery, completing their successful action.
Supreme court decision that resulted in the "Separate but Equal" doctrine, lasting 56 years of Jim Crow Laws and racial segregation, until Brown v Board of Ed.
Rules that Chinese born in the US cannot be stripped of citizenship- confirms 14th amendment for Chinese
9 boys were tried for rape of a white woman in 1931, and even though the accuser eventually came out as a witness for the defense, the all-white jury still convicted all 9 boys in Alabama. The defense was sponsored by the American Communist Party and launched the party in the black community, especially. This case ended all-white juries in the South, and nationalized the miscarriage of justice in the South for black defendants.
Because of Dale Bumpers' support of the movement, then City Attorney for Charleston, Charleston was integrated. He was a courageous advocated for the civil rights movement.
Supreme Court unanimous decision that overrules Separate but Equal Doctrine,establishing that the doctrine psychologically impacts black students beyond facilities. President Marshall recruited plaintiffs in his struggle to challenge school segregation, including recruiting Brown and his daughter. With the aid of lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston, test cases around the country helped set form the agenda in the court decision, establishing and challenging what is equal.
In an addendum to the original decision, the Supreme Court releases Brown II, leaving the integration of the public schools to the district courts because of sheer scale. They are told to use "all deliberate speed". The result is tumultuous and snail-like in pace.
Ruling that bus segregation is unlawful, pushing the Supreme Court to declare that segregation is unconstitutional
During Freedom Summer, three activists were killed by off-duty police force members for their work registering voters. The murders were each given six years, a momentous event because they in fact received any jail time at all.