I begin it with the outbreak of the black death, and ended with the hand of the depression
Begins with Martin Luther's 95 theses, ends with the peace of Augsburg
1550 his fist from making Europe, 1648 is the end of the 30 years war
Begins more or less with Copernicus, and some or less with the French revolution
This is the age of absolutism. I guess it begins in 1648 with the end of the 30 years war, and ends in 1789 with the French revolution. (Making Europe, second edition)
French revolution until world war 1
Classic liberalism (Montesquieu, Locke)
Radicalism slash democracy (Rousseau)
19th century conservatism (Burke)
First Tudor Monarch
This is not the end of the Waldensians. They will continue to exist in the region of France, Italy and Spain at that time called "Ossitania." You know, Languedoc and Catalunia and all.
As nation states and national identities are developing, this is a big shift towards popular support for systematic persecution of "others," e.g. Jews and lepers and heretics (Ruiz).
He has a powerful army, and part of what sustains Luther politically is that the German nobles sees the Reformation's opportunity to break their oath of fealty and unite against this powerful army.
At first just wanted to elect their own pastors, then watch to elect a peasant Parliament. Luther disavows them, the nobles destroy them.
Two phases, Catholics when the first one, and a two year hiatus, and protestants when second one
Ottomans beat the armies of Christendom decisively
Shows the strains to the concert of Europe
Begin as the failure of absolutism in Spain
When the 30 years war ends, UPR knowledge universally as their own country