HY 102 EXAM 1


Scientific Revolution

1450 - 1850

Origins of the Scientific Revolution

The Authority of the Ancients & the Ptolemaic Universe Astronomy: The Copernican Revolution

Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, & Galileo

Physics: The Newtonian Synthesis

Medicine & Anatomy Paracelsus, Vesalius, & Harvey Scientific method & scientific academies

The Witchraze

Early Modern Society

1450 - 1850

Henry VIII

1491 - 1547

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was king of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was lord, and later king, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII.

Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church.[1] Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542.

Catherine of Aragon (marriage annulled; died while detained under guard at Kimbolton Castle);
Anne Boleyn (executed);
Jane Seymour (died days after giving birth, widely believed to be following birth complications);
Anne of Cleves (marriage annulled);
Catherine Howard (executed);
Catherine Parr (widowed).

King Henry the Eighth,
to six wives he was wedded.
One died, one survived,
two anulled, two beheaded.

Columbian Exchange


biological and ecological exchange of plants, animals, & diseases between the Old World and New World following Columbus’ voyage to the Americas


1500 - 1600

is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a relatively stationary Sun at the center of the Solar System. The word comes from the Greek (ἥλιος helios "sun" and κέντρον kentron "center"). Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center


1500 - 1600

Mercantilism is an economic doctrine based on the theory that a nation benefits by accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods. Mercantilism dominated Western European economic policy and discourse from the 16th to late-18th centuries.[1] Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time and motivated colonial expansion. Mercantilist theory varied in sophistication from one writer to another and evolved over time.

Charles V

1516 - 1556

Was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556. War between Charles V & Lutheran princes ended with the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 (German princes could choose either Lutheranism or Catholicism as the religion of their domains).

Martin Luther


October 31, 1517: Luther posted his 95 theses in Wittenberg. Luther’s opponents: Pope Leo X & Holy Roman Emperor Charles V . 1521: Luther condemned as a heretic & the Diet of Worms

Salvation by faith alone (not by good works)
Sola fides, sola scriptura, & the “priesthood of all believers” All people are equally capable of understanding God’s word as expressed in the Bible & can gain salvation without the help of intermediaries No popes, bishops, monks, or nuns
Abolition of monasteries & convents
Abolition of clerical celibacy Vernacular language subsisted for Latin

Age of Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals, leadership, and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The Reformation was precipitated by earlier events within Europe, such as the Black Death and the Western Schism, which eroded people's faith in the Catholic Church and the Papacy that governed it. This, as well as many other factors, such as spread of Renaissance ideas, the spread of the printing press, and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, contributed to the creation of Protestantism.

The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent and spearheaded by the new order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) specifically organised to counter the Protestant movement. In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, turned Protestant. Southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while fierce battles which turned into warfare took place in central Europe.[1]

The first of the new churches was the Unitas Fratrum (Unity of the Brethren) dating their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century. The largest of the new churches were the Lutherans (mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia) and the Reformed churches (mostly in Germany, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Scotland). There were many smaller bodies such as the Free Christians, as well.

Although there had been a reformation movement significantly predating Luther, the most common dating of the Protestant Reformation begins in 1517, when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and concludes in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars.[1]
Switzerland - Zwingli, John Calvin
Scandinavia - Lutheranism
England - Church of England (or Anglican Church), Puritan
Scotland - Presbyterian
France - Huguenots
Netherlands - Anabaptist
Hungary - Calvinism, Lutheranism, Catholicism
Ireland - Roman Catholic
Italy - the Reformation exerted almost no lasting influence, The Christian Church in Italy

95 Theses

October 31, 1517

Luther posted his 95 theses in Wittenberg. Was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.

Hernan Cortes

1519 - 1520

Cortes arrived with 500 man at the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, arrested Moctezuma, and laid siege to Tenochtitlan. Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century

John Calvin


God’s omnipotence
Human depravity & sinfulness
Calvin’s Geneva
French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.

Francisco Pizarro


Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire.



Age of Reformation
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God. John Calvin interpreted biblical predestination to mean that God willed eternal damnation for some people and salvation for others.[1] Explanations of predestination often seek to address the so-called "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will. In this usage, predestination can be regarded as a form of religious determinism; and usually predeterminism.



Munster (1534)
John of Leiden
Menno Simons & the
Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, considered Protestant by some, although some consider Anabaptism to be a distinct movement from Protestantism.[3][page needed][4] The Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites are direct descendants of the movement.

The name Anabaptist is derived from the Greek term anabaptista, or "one who baptizes over again." This name was given them by their enemies in reference to the practice of "re-baptizing" converts who "already had been baptized" (or sprinkled) as infants.[5] Anabaptists required that baptismal candidates be able to make their own confessions of faith and so rejected baptism of infants.



The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[2][3][4][5] in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Initially prompted by a dispute over the annulment of the marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534 and became the established church by an Act of Parliament in the Act of Supremacy, beginning a series of events known as the English Reformation.[6] During the reign of Queen Mary I and King Philip, the church was fully restored under Rome in 1555. Papal authority was again explicitly rejected after the accession of Queen Elizabeth I when the Act of Supremacy of 1558 was passed.



The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes and promote social justice and ecumenical dialogue

Ptolemaic universe


Medieval cosmos/medieval cosmology: a synthesis of Aristotle, Ptolemy, & Christian theology
Heavenly bodies orbit in a hierarchy of spheres
Earth at center
Heavens & earth composed of
different matter
The “prime mover”

Religious Warfare

1540 - 1650

A series of regional wars in Germany in the 1540s & 1550s

The revolts of Dutch protestants against the Catholic Spanish Hapsburg empire (1568-1648)

The French wars of religion (1562-98)

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-48)

Political rivalries & colonial competition

Nicolaus Copernicus


16th-century Polish clergyman & astronomer
Ptolemaic system did not conform to observations
Copernican system
The earth moved & was not the center of the planetary system
The earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. It issued numerous reform decrees.[3] By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, and the Biblical canon, the Council was answering Protestant disputes.


1550 - 1650

Absolutism: a system of government in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power
Features of Absolutism:

Strong monarchy
Centralized bureaucracy
Command of the state's standing army
Personal loyalty to the king
Divine right theory

Bartolome de las Casas


was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies and focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

“Bloody Mary” (r. 1553-58): the first queen regnant of England & wife to Philip II of Spain; restored Catholicism
Executed Lady Jane Grey
Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her brutal persecution of Protestants caused her opponents to give her the sobriquet "Bloody Mary".

She was the only child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon who survived to adulthood. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because of religious differences. On his death, their cousin Lady Jane Grey was at first proclaimed queen. Mary assembled a force in East Anglia and successfully deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556.

As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after the short-lived Protestant reign of her half-brother. During her five-year reign, she had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed after her death in 1558 by her younger half-sister and successor, Elizabeth I.

Peace of Augsburg


(German princes could choose either Lutheranism or Catholicism as the religion of their domains)
The Holy Roman Empire: war between Charles V & Lutheran princes ended
allowed Holy Roman Empire's states' princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states.

Philip II of Spain

1556 - 1598

Militant Catholicisim
King of Spain (as Philip II in Castille and Philip I in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip I (Portuguese: Filipe I). During his marriage to Queen Mary I, he was King of England and Ireland and pretender to the kingdom of France King of Spain (as Philip II in Castille and Philip I in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip I (Portuguese: Filipe I). During his marriage to Queen Mary I, he was King of England and Ireland and pretender to the kingdom of France

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

re-established Protestantism (Anglicanism); Act of Supremacy & Act of Uniformity (1559). Elizabethan England & the age of Shakespeare. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born into the royal succession, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. On his death in 1553, her half-brother, Edward VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic Mary, out of the succession in spite of statute law to the contrary. His will was set aside, Mary became queen, and Lady Jane Grey was executed. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

King Henry II of France (reign: 1547-59) & the Regency of Catherine de Medici

1562: Civil War broke
out in France after a
massacre of

1572: The Marriage
of Margaret of Valois
(Catholic) & Henry of
Navarre (Protestant Bourbon prince)
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572): slaughter of Huguenots

Henry III (Catholic Valois king), Henry of Navarre (Protestant heir) & Henry duke of Guise (Catholic noble)

1588: Murder of the Duke of Guise, head of the Catholic League

1589: Henry III assassinated; Henry of Navarre became king Henry IV (Bourbon dynasty)

1598: End of the French wars of religion & the Edict of Nantes, which granted religious toleration for Protestants

a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and House of Guise (Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.

At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642
  • Italian astronomer & physicist
  • Most important champion of Copernicus
  • Built his own telescope in 1610
  • Challenged the notion of heavenly perfection
  • Controversy & clash with the Catholic Church Galileo argued that one can be a Copernican and a Catholic 1616: the Inquisition forbade Galileo to teach the heretical doctrine that the earth moves
  • 1633: Inquisition trial where Galileo recanted his beliefs
    • Continued to work on theories of inertia and motion


1568 - 1648

Dutch Calvinists revolt against the Spanish
Habsburg Empire (1568-1648)
- Philip II vs. William of Orange “the silent”
- Northern Dutch United Provinces
(Protestant) & Southern Spanish (Catholic)
- Elizabeth I aided Dutch rebels &
defeated the Spanish Armada (1588)
- Truce in 1609 & Dutch independence
in 1648

Habsburg dominions included Austria, Bohemia, & Hungary

Ottoman Turks’ siege of Vienna (1683); defeat of the Turks by Austrians (with help from German & Polish troops)

was one of the most important royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, England, Germany, Hungary, Croatia, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian countries

The Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

Dutch Calvinists revolt against the Spanish
Habsburg Empire (1568-1648)
- Philip II vs. William of Orange “the silent”
- Northern Dutch United Provinces
(Protestant) & Southern Spanish (Catholic)
- Elizabeth I aided Dutch rebels &
defeated the Spanish Armada (1588)
- Truce in 1609 & Dutch independence
in 1648
the successful revolt of the Protestant Seventeen Provinces of the defunct Duchy of Burgundy in the Low Countries against the ardent militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism pressed by Philip II of Spain. The religious 'clash of cultures' built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic. The first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the United Provinces.

King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, however, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged. The northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. During the revolt, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, better known as the Dutch Republic, rapidly grew to become a world power through its merchant shipping and experienced a period of economic, scientific, and cultural growth. The Southern Netherlands (situated in modern-day Belgium, Luxembourg, northern France and southern Netherlands) remained under Spanish rule. The continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial, intellectual, and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


slaughter of Huguenots
targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place four days after the wedding of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). This marriage was an occasion for which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris.

The massacre began on 23 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, and the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to other urban centres and the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead vary widely, from 5,000 to 30,000.

The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres." [2] Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion".[3]

The Armada


Elizabeth I aided Dutch rebels & defeated the Spanish Armada.

The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada or Armada Invencible, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or "Invincible Fleet") was the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands and in privateering in the Atlantic and Pacific.

The Armada reached and anchored outside Gravelines, but, while awaiting communications from the Duke of Parma's army, it was driven out by an English fire ship attack. In the ensuing battle, the Spanish fleet was forced to abandon its rendezvous.


1589 - 1792

France: Henry III assassinated; Henry of Navarre became king Henry IV (Bourbon dynasty)
Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

The Edict of Nantes


End of the French wars of religion & the Edict of Nantes, which granted religious toleration for Protestants
issued on 13 April 1598, by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. In the Edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity.[1] The Edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the Edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the State and to bring grievances directly to the king. It marked the end of the religious wars that had afflicted France during the second half of the 16th century.


1600 - 1700

State-building & absolutism
The Makings of Absolutist France
The Rise of Russia
The Austrian Habsburg Empire
The Rise of Prussia

Great Chain of Being


Early Modern Europe. It details a strict, religious hierarchical structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God. The chain starts from God and progresses downward to angels, demons (fallen/renegade angels), stars, moon, kings, princes, nobles, men, wild animals, domesticated animals, trees, other plants, precious stones, precious metals, and other minerals

divine right

1600 - 1700

Feature of absolutism
Contract theory of government vs. divine right theory
Thomas Hobbes: English political philosopher who championed absolutism; published Leviathan (1651)

John Locke: English philosopher who opposed absolutism & supported the Glorious Revolution; published Two Treatises on Government (1690)
Governmental authority is contractual & conditional; its purpose is to protect life, liberty, and property

Influenced American & French Revolutions as well as slavery debates


1603 - 1689

The Dutch Republic

The Failure of Absolutism & the Rise of Constitutionalism:

England, 1603-89

Social Contract Theory: John Locke & Thomas Hobbes


1613 - 1917

as the second and last imperial dynasty to rule over Russia, reigning from 1613 until the 1917 overthrow of the monarchy during the February Revolution.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Bohemian Protestants rebel: The Defenestration of Prague (1618)

Catholic Habsburgs (Holy Roman Empire, Austria, & Spain) vs. Protestant rebels in the Holy Roman Empire, Denmark, Sweden, & France
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
- Recognized victory of France & its allies over the Habsburgs
- Fragmented the Holy Roman Empire
- Recognized independence of Switzerland & the Dutch Netherlands
- Reaffirmed Peace of Augsburg but also legally recognized Calvinists

Devastated German-speaking lands of the HRE: 7 million dead

Changing reasons for warfare: from religion to “reasons of state”

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Parliament insisted that Charles adopt the Petition of Right (1628), limiting the king’s powers.

Charles dissolved Parliament & began his period of personal rule (1629-40).

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, persecuted religious non-conformists (i.e. non-Anglicans), especially Puritans. Scotland rebelled & the Bishop’s Wars (1639-40) ensued.

Charles I of England was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his royal prerogative, which Charles believed was divinely ordained. Many of his subjects opposed his attempts to overrule and negate parliamentary authority, in particular his interference in the English and Scottish churches and the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, because they saw them as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.

Charles's reign was also characterised by religious conflicts. His failure to successfully aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France, generated deep mistrust among Calvinists. Charles further allied himself with controversial ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, whom Charles appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Many of Charles's subjects felt this brought the Church of England too close to Roman Catholicism. His religious policies generated the antipathy of reformed groups such as the Puritans. His attempts to force religious reforms upon Scotland led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments and helped precipitate his own downfall.

Charles's last years were marked by the Civil War, in which he fought the forces of the English and Scottish parliaments. He was defeated in the First Civil War (1642–45), after which the English Parliament expected him to accept its demands for a constitutional monarchy. He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight. This provoked the Second Civil War (1648–49) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared. In 1660, the monarchy was restored to his son, Charles II.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV (named king in 1643) & Chief Minister Cardinal Mazarin

Mazarin arrested members of the Parlement (French high law court ) of Paris after they demanded the right to approve new taxes, & nobles revolted

The Fronde Rebellion (1648-53): Revolts against royal power & taxation in France during the 1640s and 1650s

The strengthening of the monarchy

Centralization of political authority & civil bureaucracy

Enforcing religious uniformity: The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)

Managing Finances
Jean-Baptiste Colbert: minister of finance
colonialism & La Salle’s claim to the Louisiana territory

The wars of Louis XIV
Large standing army that fought multiple costly wars

The Royal Court of Versailles: residence of the royal family & administrative center of the kingdom

Louis XIV extracted more control of the government from the high nobility, whom he excluded from policy-making but kept preoccupied in court life at Versailles
Versailles as a theater of etiquette & Power

The Sun King

Isaac Newton

1643 - 1727

The English physicist built on the work of Copernicus, Galileo, & Kepler
Explained theories of motion and inertia with the universal law of gravitation
Newtons’ Principia Mathematica (1687)


1648 - 1653

The Fronde Rebellion (1648-53): Revolts against royal power & taxation in France during the 1640s and 1650s.
was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The word fronde means sling, which Parisian mobs used to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin.[1]

The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the parlements and the Fronde of the nobles.[1] The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde des parlements, directly after the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years War, was significant. The nuclei of the armed bands that terrorized parts of France under aristocratic leaders during this period had been hardened in a generation of war in Germany, where troops still tended to operate autonomously. Louis XIV, impressed as a young ruler with the experience of the Fronde, came to reorganize French fighting forces under a stricter hierarchy whose leaders ultimately could be made or unmade by the King. Thus the Fronde finally resulted in the disempowerment of the territorial aristocracy and the emergence of absolute monarchy.

Treaty of Westphalia

  • Recognized victory of France & its allies over the Habsburgs
    • Fragmented the Holy Roman Empire
    • Recognized independence of Switzerland & the Dutch



The Commonwealth, Commonwealth of England or English Commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when England, along later with Ireland and Scotland,[1] was ruled as a republic, following the defeat of King Charles I in the Second English Civil War and his execution. The republic's existence was initially declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth",[2] which was adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War.

In 1653, after the forcible dissolution of the Rump Parliament, Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector of a united Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland under the terms of the Instrument of Government, inaugurating the period now usually known as the Protectorate. After Cromwell's death, and following a brief period of rule under his son, Richard Cromwell, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, the start of a process that led ultimately to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 – a period referred to by monarchists as the Interregnum – although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwell’s formal assumption of power in 1653.


1649 - 1653

The abolition of the monarchy & the creation of a puritan republic, the commonwealth (1649-53), headed by Cromwell

The Puritans were a significant grouping of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, including, but not limited to, English Calvinists. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some Marian exiles from the clergy shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England. The designation "Puritan" is often incorrectly used, notably based on the assumption that hedonism and puritanism are antonyms.[1] Historically, the word was used pejoratively to characterize the Protestant group as extremists similar to the Cathars of France, and according to Thomas Fuller in his Church History dated back to 1564, Archbishop Matthew Parker of that time used it and "precisian" with the sense of modern "stickler".[2]

In alliance with the growing commercial world, the parliamentary opposition to the royal prerogative, and in the late 1630s with the Scottish Presbyterians with whom they had much in common, the Puritans became a major political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War (1642–46). After the Restoration of 1660 and the 1662 Uniformity Act, almost all Puritan clergy left the Church of England, some becoming nonconformist ministers, and the nature of the movement in England changed radically, though it retained its character for much longer in New England.

The Atlantic Slave Trade

1650 - 1850

Atlantic system : economic network
that bound together western Europe,
Africa, and the America, lasting from the discovery of the Americas into the 19th century

The triangular trade: the trade route of the Atlantic system between the Europe, Africa, and the Americas

The Middle Passage: the journey of slave trading ships from the west coast of Africa across the Atlantic

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Oliver Cromwell & the New Model Army

Parliamentary forces triumphed over the King & purged the long Parliament of those wanted a limited monarch

The Rump Parliament (1648-60)
Tried Charles I for treason
Execution of Charles I (1649)

The abolition of the monarchy & the creation of a puritan republic, the commonwealth (1649-53), headed by Cromwell

Cromwell crushed his opposition at home and abroad (Ireland)

1653: Cromwell abolished parliament in a military coup

Protectorate (1653-58): Cromwell’s military dictatorship
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)[N 1] was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Born into the middle gentry, Cromwell was relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life. After undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, he became an independent puritan, taking a generally (but not completely) tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period.[1] An intensely religious man—a self-styled Puritan Moses—he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640–49) Parliaments. He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces.

Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and, as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–53), he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–50. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country – bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.

On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament, before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland from 16 December 1653.[2] As a ruler he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. After his death in 1658 he was buried in Westminster Abbey, but after the Royalists returned to power in 1660 they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Hume,[3] a military dictator by Winston Churchill,[4] but a hero of liberty by Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, Cromwell was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time.[5] However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised as genocidal or near-genocidal,[6] and in Ireland his record is harshly criticised.[7]

"I am the State"

1661 - 1715

Absolutism at Versailles
‘L’etat, c’est moi.’
The Sun King Louis XIV
During his personal rule


1682 - 1789

The Royal Court of Versailles: residence of the royal family & administrative center of the kingdom

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Traveled to Holland and England to study shipbuilding and recruit skilled workers

The transformation of the tsarist state
Military and political reorganization

Westernization of

ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power. According to historian James Cracraft, he led a cultural revolution that replaced the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system

Glorious Revolution


The Glorious Revolution,[b] also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.

King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition by members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the king's Catholicism and his close ties with France. The crisis facing the king came to a head in 1688, with the birth of the King's son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on 10 June (Julian calendar).[a] This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive, his daughter Mary, a Protestant and the wife of William of Orange, with young James as heir apparent. The establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms now seemed likely. Some of the most influential leaders of the Tories united with members of the opposition Whigs and set out to resolve the crisis by inviting William of Orange to England,[1] which the stadtholder, who feared an Anglo-French alliance, had indicated as a condition for a military intervention.

After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at Torbay. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, and anti-Catholic riots in several towns, James's regime collapsed, largely because of a lack of resolve shown by the king. However, this was followed by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundee's rising in Scotland.[c] In England's geographically-distant American colonies, the revolution led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government. Following a defeat of his forces at the Battle of Reading on 9 December, James and his wife fled England; James, however, returned to London for a two-week period that culminated in his final departure for France on 23 December. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William in February 1689 convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs.

The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For British Catholics its effects were disastrous both socially and politically: Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament for over a century; they were also denied commissions in the army, and the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic, this latter prohibition remaining in force until the UK's Succession to the Crown Act 2013 removes it once it comes into effect. The Revolution led to limited toleration for Nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued[who?] that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights of 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power.

Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe. It has been seen as the last successful invasion of England.[2] It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force. However, the resulting economic integration and military co-operation between the English and Dutch Navies shifted the dominance in world trade from the Dutch Republic to England and later to Great Britain.

The expression "Glorious Revolution" was first used by John Hampden in late 1689,[3] and is an expression that is still used by the British Parliament.[4] The Glorious Revolution is also occasionally termed the Bloodless Revolution, albeit inaccurately. The English Civil War (also known as the Great Rebellion) was still within living memory for most of the major English participants in the events of 1688, and for them, in comparison to that war (or even the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685) the deaths in the conflict of 1688 were mercifully few.

John Locke


English philosopher who opposed absolutism & supported the Glorious Revolution; published Two Treatises on Government (1690)
Governmental authority is contractual & conditional; its purpose is to protect life, liberty, and property

Influenced American & French Revolutions as well as slavery debates
John Locke FRS (/ˈlɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism,[2][3][4] was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.[5]

Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau and Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.