Dates are VERY approximate!
1543: Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)
End date is very approximate
1637: Descartes publishes his Discourse on Method
1789: French Revolution (Napoleonic wars of 1804-1815 are also taken as an end point)
Dates are very approximate
Christianity is the official religion of the Roman Empire
Beginning with the conversion of Clovis, a Frankish king (converted 497); ending with the death of St. Vladimir (1015), who established Christianity in Russia
From the calling of the first crusade by Pope Urban II (“Deus vult!”/ “God wills it!”) to the fall of Acre, the last Christian territory in the Holy Land, in 1291. - See more at: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/133576-church-history#sthash.x6g8POSn.dpuf
Ends the Thirty Years' War, declaring:
1) All parties would now recognise the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio)
2) Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. (Wikipedia)
Founded the Benedictine order. Wrote "The Rule of St. Benedict"
c. 49/50 (exact date unknown)
Refutes Nestorian heresy
Discussed two natures of Christ; Mary as "mother of God" (Theotokos)
Allowed for the veneration of icons. Distinguished between latria (worship due to God) and dulia (honor, reverence), the latter of which was appropriate to give to icons
Divides Carolingian Empire into 3: France (Charles), Middle Kingdom (Low Countries to northern Italy: Lothar), and eastern kingdom basically of Germany (Louis)
Pope has powers from God: Power to convene/ratify a council, define tenets of the faith, appoint, transfer and remove bishops, and to depose temporal rulers, and subjects of a temporal ruler to appeal to papacy to bring charges against temporal ruler. Priest guilty of simony: removed from hierarchy, and loss of power. Priest guilty of fornication: unable to say Mass.
Agreement between Henry V (HRE; second son of Henry IV) and pope. Ended Lay Investiture Controversy. First Part: leaves spiritual investiture to Church, temporal investiture to civil authorities. Emperor permits free election of bishops. Condemnation of simony. Emperor can veto bishops by withholding investiture of temporal authority of bishops.
King wants to control elections of abbots and bishops. Clerics were to be tried in civil courts. Appeals to Rome first required consent of king. King’s court is last resort for ecclesiastical appeals.
Letter written from Pope Boniface VIII to King Philip the Fair. Asserts that kings cannot tax clergy without papal permission. Philip cuts off all French shipments of gold, silver, jewels to Italy. This forces Boniface to back down.
Published by Henry VIII, declared tenets of faith of Church of England. Maintained Catholic beliefs.
Papal Bull denouncing Luther, giving him two months to recant or be excommunicated. Luther burns it and the book of Canon Law.
Diet (legislative assembly) meets in Augsburg to try to form alliance between Catholics and Protestants against Turkish threat. Melanchton drafts statement of basic Lutheran teachings (the Augsburg Confession).
French King Henry IV allows tolerance for Protestants, who can hold Protestant services in the privacy of their own homes; legal practice of Protestantism if majority of town is Protestant; some towns could fortify themselves with Protestant garrisons; Protestants and Catholics have same civil rights, and Protestants can run for civil office and attend Catholic universities.
William and Mary’s “Act of Settlement” bars Catholics from political office