Unit 1 (1607 - 1750)

Colonial Period

Events and Movements

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Whigs:
Attacking the authoritarian government (abuse of power by the king)

Bacons Rebellion: Virginia

1676 - 1677

The Great Awakening

1730 - 1740

Caused by a need for a more personal relationship with a deity
Threw away old conventions
Started by Wesley brothers and George whitefield in England before crossing over to America in from 1720 to 1760
Argued against the old lights (Congregationalist preachers BORING)
Preaches fire and brimstone and hope
Causes people to challenge the system
Breaks down social barriers by calling everybody a sinner and preaching in the open
Brings people together from all the different colonies
It did change people theories

Cause or Foundation of the Revolution
Yes:
Occurred across Social boundaries (Rich and Poor, Men and Women, Urban and Rural, Racial)
Empowered People to stand up against leaders
Anti Authoritarianism
Connected the different colonies and set up an organized base for the rebellion
No:
Based in "Secular" Enlightenment Philosophy
Different Generation
Not Colonial wide, strong in new england

The Zenger Trial

1733 - 1734

Zenger was a publisher of the New York Weekly Journal where he wrote about his disagreement with polices by the government.
He was taken to court on November 17, 1734 for "divers scandalous, virulent, false and seditious reflections" and was released not guilty by the jury.

So What?
"In successfully defending Zenger in this landmark case, Hamilton established the precedent that a statement, even if defamatory, is not libelous(lies) if it can be proved, thus affirming freedom of the press in America."
Also sowed doubt about the british and established that he could tell about the government.

French Indian War/7 Years War

1754 - 1763

British fight French and Indians for America and the Lucrative trade of skins
War started by George Washington when he was sent out on patrol with the british to raid french settlements where the french say that he killed a british governor.
George washington kidnapped by french and forced to sign a document saying that he killed the governor
There is a culture clash between British soldiers and British colonists.

Winning of the British and writs of assistance

1761

Colonys flourished on their own and were neglected by british
The british want to recoup their losses by taking over french trading system and taxing the colonists without giving them land to west or a presence in parliament
The colonists do not like this and due to their change of governments systems they do not like the new government
Writs of Assistance essentially give the british power to barge into peoples homes and audit them
James otis challenges the writs of assistance to enforce the navigation acts by saying that "no taxation without representation"
The newspapers begin criticizing the british and start calling the people together to act against the british

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763

The french have given up but the indians have not
The indians in the ohio river valley unite and try to drive away the british
Jeffrey Amherst gives the indians blankets infected with smallpox to try and kill them
The proclamation line is brought online to appease the indians but causes rebellions in the colonys
The colonists break all the new laws with even more impudency

The currency act

1764

The colonists may not print their own money and they must use the british pound and sterling.
Shows more intrusions by british into the colony governments and the lack of respect for said governments.
Response: The assembly of New York and Massachusetts tries to tell Great-Britain that they do not have a presence in parliament, and therefore the taxes are going against their rights as englishmen

Sugar Act

1764

The first proclamation by the british to tax the sugar going into the colonies which the respond to by boycotting sugar and drinking tea without it.

Important is because it was the first tax and that it shows the first response from the settlers.

The Stamp Act

1765

The most important of the different acts
Stated that all official documents (newspapers, letters, certificates etc.) must pay a tax to the british.
It was a visible direct tax because it was added on to the prices. The colonists did not like this visible tax, and they boycotted.

(Tar and Feathered the tax collectors)

The Quartering Act

1765

People were forced to house soldiers in their own homes so that the soldiers could enforce the taxes.

Sons of Liberty

1765

Led by sam adams, these guys did the tarring and feathering of the tax collectors

Stamp Act Crisis Boston

1765

Reading by Gary Nash about the rebellion in boston to the stamp act

William Pitt's address to Parliament

1766

He addresses the parliament of britain to ask them to repeal the stamp act because it is taxation without representation. But he tells them to repeal the act but in a way that reinforces their dominance.

Declaratory Act

1766

The British government repeals the stamp act, but then claims the right to tax anyone anywhere. "Parliament has the right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and the people of america" showing that they have no idea how to restore control of america

Townshend Acts

1767

A hidden tax that taxes all imported goods. The colonists find out and THEY ARE ANGRY. Those angry are all the powerful traders and colonists.

The Boston Massacre

1770

Drunk boston people begin abusing british soldiers guarding a warehouse. One of the soldiers fire and the rest follow suit killing many 8 - 11 guns fired 5 people dead. Parliament repeals the Townshend Duties on all items except Tea.

The Boston Tea Part

1773

Battle of Bunker Hill

1775

Soldiers overlook the Boston town from bunker hill.
the commander sends soldiers to take it and they are repelled with great loss on both sides

Lenxington and Concord

april 1775

Storming of the militia armory
repelled back to harbor

Second Continental Congress

may 1775

Trying to get a response from britain and are rejected

Fort Ticonderoga

december 1775

Powerful fortress that contains many cannons
Colonists want it and the british woke up with colonists putting them in chains. Henry Knox brings the cannons to washington on sleds with oxen

Saratoga

october 1777

The attempt at decapitating the head of the revolution. FAIL
Leads to the treaty of alliance with french in 1778

Surrender of Cornwallis

October 1781

Cornwallis would not surrender and sent his deputy, washington would not accept this and sent his deputy.

Treaty of Paris

1783

"in the name of the most holy and undivided trinity"
"forget all past misunderstandings and differences"
"secure to both perpetual peace and harmony"

People and Theories

Locke

1642 - 1651

Locke believes that people are inherently good and that they need a chance to choose their govenrment.

Hobbes

1642 - 1651

Secular thinker who believes that the divine right of kings is wrong. He creates the idea of a social contract between people and government. He does believe that a government is necessary because people need leadership.

Rule of Edmund Andros in Massachussetts

1685 - 1696

Sent by James II to retake control of colony

Thomas Paine (1737–1809) Common Sense

1776

Influenced by Locke
Common sense is a pamphlet written for the people by Thomas Paine slandering the system of monarchy. He tells about casting of the British who can only bring pain through their governing to the colonies.
He tells the people to replace monarchy with a different democratic government. SEPARATE FROM EUROPE.

Thomas Paine

February 1776

Wrote "Common Sense"
Very simple to read
Argument = Let us separate from the british

Nathan Hail

april 1776

Colonial spy captured and executed by british

Declaration of Independence

july 4 1776

Written by benjamin franklin, john hancock, thomas jefferson

Yorktown

1781

Colonies

Southern Colonies: Virginia

1619

Middle Colonies: New York

1626

Originally New Netherlands but became New York in 1644

New England: Massachusetts (Puritans)

1630

Name: Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth --> Massachusetts --> Boston
Purpose: Religeon
To set up a city upon the hill where the purist of the puritans (Separatist Pilgrims) could go.
Notes:
*Began with governor Winthrop
*Wilderness Zion
*Biggest and most influential of the New England outposts
*Heavily religious and the Non-Puritans did not have rights and still had to pay taxes to the church
*Church and Government were linked together
*Murdered and/or banished(same thing) all who threatened the puritan way(Roger Williams)
James II sends a new catholic governor (Edmund Andros) in 1685, removed in 1696
*Responsible for the salem witch trials

New England: Rhode Island

1636

Middle Colonies: Pennsylvania

1682

Boston Town Meeting Resolutions

1768

The people are organizing boycotts

Southern Colonies: Maryland

1788

Act of toleration

England