These events reflect opposition to abortion for either religious or political reasons and desire for increased birth rates. As the two are historical bedfellows, they are lumped together.
Code of Hammurabi says a person causing a noble’s daughter to abort by hitting her shall be fined 10 shekels
Post-quickening abortion is no longer considered homicide in England, but William Blackstone confirms the "born alive rule" and calls it "a very heinous misdemeanor".
UK’s Lord Ellenborough’s Act brings criminality to abortion in Ireland and Britain, making abortion after quickening a capitol crime, and providing lesser penalties for the felony of abortion before quickening. Opens up statutory criminal abortion to English speaking world.
Napoleonic Code criminalizes abortion and prescribes harsh sentencing in France.
Primarily through the efforts of physicians in the American Medical Association and legislators, most abortions in the U.S. were outlawed.
Connecticut first US state to pass statutory law against abortion.
The Shogunate in Japan bans induced abortion in Edo. The law does not affect the rest of the country.
Aggressive anti-abortion laws passed in every state and most jurisdictions
The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the Offences against the Person Act 1861 which outlaws abortion.
Pope Pius IX « Ensoulment occurs at conception « Gives physicians more responsibility for determining pregnancy increasing their professional status. Declares abortion under any circumstance a mortal sin and that anyone who participated in an abortion in any material way had by virtue of that act excommunicated themselves from the Church.
The Parliament of Canada unifies criminal law in all provinces, banning abortion.
US Comstock Act in the United States criminalizes media publication of contraception or abortion by making it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail, including information, resources, and advertisements.
Abortion—except in cases to save the mother’s life—was a criminal procedure in every state except Kentucky, where the courts declared the procedure to be judicially illegal (leaving the law open to interpretation)
Russia enacts ban on abortion.
Last execution for abortion occurs in France under the Vichy regime (1940-1944). Abortion under this regime is a capital crime, punishable by the death penalty.
Abortion illegal in all 50 states.
43 abortion restrictions are enacted in 19 states.
These events reflect either support for abortion and or support for population control based on Malthus population theories. As the two are historical bedfellows, they have been lumped together.
Ebers Medical Papyrus includes herbal contraceptive, suppositories, and the “first recorded evidence” of induced abortion.
Aristotle advocates inducing abortion “before sense and life have begun in the embryo” if conception occurs in excess of the limit (of population)
Abu al-Hasan al-Tabib, a Persian physician, advocated abortion for pregnancies of girls under 15 because of the uterus size and risk to girl’s health.
U.S medical world looks very different from Europe. Many health practitioners practice “physik”, folk medicine, and some communities’ medical practice are women led
Russia first country to allow abortion on demand.
Germany, Mexico, Iceland, and Sweden are next countries in line after Russia to legalize abortion- but do not provide abortion on demand. Some legalize in cases of rape and incest, others cite grave danger to the mother as legal reasons.
The American Law Institute (ALI) drafts a model state abortion law to make legal abortions accessible
Colorado legalized some abortions, with 14 states following- all with strict conditions.
Canada passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968-69, which began to allow abortion for selective reasons
The Indian Parliament under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi, passes Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 (MTP Act 1971). India becomes one of the earliest nations to pass this Act. The Act gains importance, considering India had traditionally been a very conservative country in these matters. Most notably no similar Act in several US states exists around the same time.
U.S Supreme Court rules that a woman’s right to privacy includes her right to decide, so long as it’s balanced against the state’s two legitimate interests- prenatal life and women’s health- meaning states can ban or restrict abortion after “viability” except when necessary to save the individual’s life.
Hyde amendment, a legislative rider, prevents federal Medicaid fund from being used to pay for abortion, except in the cases of rape or incest
France first country to legalize RU-486
These events are either not explicitly pro or anti reproductive rights in nature and despite the consequences of their enactment, or have throughout history been used to justify either sides of the debate.
A Chinese record documents the number of royal concubines who had abortions in China
Hippocratic Oath prohibits the administration of an abortive suppository or pessary. That statement will be mistranslated and selectively interpreted for centuries to come. Other parts of the Hippocratic treatise prescribe abortions using manual manipulation
Mishnah, a written account of Jewish law mentions “root potions” and abortions and says “man is commanded concerning propagation but not woman” suggesting that though men have the responsibility of spreading their seed, women don’t hold the responsibility of letting them take root.
Scientific Revolution forces women into the hypothetical limelight of reproduction. Church laws will follow suit, claiming the use of abortifacients to be a “quasi homicide” and mortal sin.
Sir Edward Coke formulates the "born alive rule", in common law, which holds that various criminal laws, such as homicide and assault, apply only to a child that is "born alive".
During the fight for women's suffrage in the U.S., some notable first-wave feminists, such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Mary Wollstonecraft, opposed abortion
German Nazi Regime considers abortion of an Aryan pregnancy a capitol offense punishable by death, but allows for abortions in the case of deformity of disability.
The Birth Control Federation of America, founded by Margaret Sanger, became Planned Parenthood. In early years P.P will oppose abortion, with one early brochure declaring “Abortion is wrong way to limit family size.” Today P.P is largest U.S provider.
According to Center For Reproductive Rights, 61% of the world’s people live in countries where induced abortion is permitted either for a wide range of reasons or without restriction as to reason. In contrast, 26% of all people reside in countries where abortion is generally prohibited.
The World Health Organization publishes Guttmacher Institute declaration that nearly half of all abortions worldwide are unsafe, 98% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries, that as a whole over half (56%) of the abortion in the developing world are unsafe, compared with 6% of abortions in the developed world being considered unsafe.