The Era-Appropriate Curriculum Model

Benchmark Assignment EDLD 568


Historic U.S. Events

Reconstruction, Urbanization, and Industrialization

1865 - 1889

13th Amendment outlaws slavery, 1865

Thomas Alva Edison

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: A History of American Sweatshops, 1820-Present

Communities in a Changing Nation: The Promise of 19th-Century America

The Progressive Era

1890 - 1913

Wright Brothers fly the first successful airplane, December 17, 1903

Theodore Roosevelt, Icon of the American Century

"Make the Dirt Fly" Building the Panama Canal

Spike in US Yearly Immigration

1905 - 1915

According to in the trend in US immigration tips over the 1 miillion per year mark in 1905 and continues with at least 750,000 individuals coming to the country for the next ten years.

US involvement in World War I

1917 - 1918

Preoccupation with World War 1 eroded and distracted education reform efforts. Many recruits being ill prepared physically for war lead to the adoption of Physical Education as part of the school curriculum (Lundt and Wiles, 2004, p. 22).

The Great Depression (1929-1939)

1929 - 1939

"Bang! went the doors of every bank in America"

The National Recovery Administration

Frances Perkins: New Deal Stateswoman and Labor Reformer

New Deal and the Arts Oral History Interviews

World War II (1941-1945)

1941 - 1945

G.I. World War II

Produce for Victory, Posters on the American Home Front (1941-45)

V-Mail, "Victory" Mail from World War II

The Enola Gay drops atomic bomb, Aug. 6, 1945

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Spotlight: Biography: Korean War, 1950-1953
Space Race
Fast Attacks and Boomers: Submarines in the Cold War
Rebels: Painters and Poets of the 1950s

Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education,
May 17, 1954

Whatever Happened to Polio?
The Presidency and the Cold War

The Modern Era



The 1960s

1960 - 1970

Woolworth's Sit-in, Greensboro, NC, February 1, 1960
Apollo 11 Moon landing on July 20, 1969
A Visual Journey: Photographs by Lisa Law, 1965-1971

US involvement in the Vietnam War

1960 - 1975

The 1970s

1970 - 1980

Photographing History: Fred J. Maroon and the Nixon Years, 1970-1974
Energy Crises of the 1970's

The Late 20th-Century

1980 - 2000

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Dedicated November 13, 1982
Deregulation of Electrical Power: Powering a Generation of Change
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is signed into law, 1990

The 21st-Century


Vote: The Machinery of Democracy
September 11: Bearing Witness to History
September 11, 2001: Collecting and Exhibiting a National Tragedy

US invasion of Afghanistan


US invasion of Iraq


SARS epidemic


H1N1 epidemic closes schools


Turning Points in American Education

1805 New York Free School society established to educate 500,000 pupils without expense.

New York Free School


society established to educate 500,000 pupils without expense

Boston English Classical School


First tax-supported secondary school

First Compulsory School Law Passed


Massachusetts by Horace Mann

Morrill Land Grant


Established land for public universities in all states (engineering, military science, and agriculture)

Michigan State Supreme Court upholds tax support for schools


Sets precedent for tax support in secondary schools

Francis Parker


Established the first subject matter groupings as an early form of curriculum

Joseph M. Rice Comprehensive study of American Ed.


First comprehensive study of American education

Committee of Ten formed


Charles Eliot, president of Harvard University, forms the Committee of Ten

NEA Committee of Ten establishes college entrance requirements


According to Longstreet and Shane (1993) "a report issued by the Committee of Ten, in 1893, established college entrance requirements and effectively ended much of the curricular experimentation that had characterized most of the nineteenth century" (p.9).

University of Chicago Laboratory School opens


John Dewey opens the University of Chicago Laboratory School

First physiological studies of schoolchildren


First comprehensive physiological studies of schoolchildren in New York by G. Stanley Hall

Carnegie Unit established as a measure of seat time


Carnegie units as a measurement of seat time along with the Committee of Ten's college entrance requirements established the basis for American high school throughout the 20th century and today (Lundt and Wiles, 2004, p. 20).

Carnegie Foundation

First mental measurement scales on intelligence


First mental measurement scales on intelligence published by Alfred Binet

First Junior high school established


American Federation of Teachers Founded


According to Sass, E. (n.d.) "1916 - The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is founded as is the American Educational Research Association (AERA)."

Sass, E. (n.d.). American History a Hypertext Timeline. Retrieved from:

Smith-Hughes Act: funding for agriculture and vocational ed.


According to Sass, E. (n.d.) the Smith-Hughes Act was repealed in 1997.

Law requiring public funds for transportation


According to Gray, R. (2007) "1919: All 48 states in the contiguous United States have enacted laws allowing the use of public funds for transporting school children ... Ralph H. Carpenter Body Company was founded in Mitchell, Ind."

First text in curriculum- Franklin Bobbitt


The Seven Cardinal Principles


Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education publishes The Seven Cardinal Principles

Progressive Education Association founded


Eight Year Study

1932 - 1940

Eight Year Study

Educational Plicy Commission Statement


Created by the National Education Association (NEA) to study the effects of the Great Depression. It stressed four aims of education: self-realization, human relations, economic efficiency, and civic responsibility (Wiles, 2005, p. 34).

The Purpose of Education in American Democracy published


The Educational Policies Commission publishes its four-point objectives for education-The Purpose of Education in American Democracy

Education for ALL American Youth


According to Wiles (2005) "in this document the Educational Policies Commission rejects an 'academic only' curriculum and identifies ten imperative needs of youth that must be served by the school curriculum" (p. 34).

Congress passes G.I. Bill


Congress passes the G.I. Bill to further the education of veterans

Brown v. Topeka


U.S. Supreme Court rules Brown v. Topeka that public schools must racially integrate previously "separate but equal" schools

Russian Sputnik satellite launched


Russian launches Sputnik satellite, beginning both a space and an education race. According to Wiles (2005) "in response the Congress passed a $1 billion NDEA bill with most emphasis given to science and mathematics" (p.37).

National Defense Education Act passed


U.S. Congress passes the National Defense Education Act, initiating serious funding of public education

Civil Rights Act passed


Civil Rights Act passed by Congress

"titled" programs begin in public schools


The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) passes, bringing "titled" programs to public schools

Title XI


Title IX amendment to the ESEA outlaws discrimination on the basis of sex

Public Law 94-142 rights for disabled children


Public Law 94-142 provides federally guaranteed rights for all children with disabilities in public schools

U.S. Department of Education established


U.S. Department of Education established

ASCD Goals for Education


According to Wiles (2005), "in this wide survey of curriculum leaders, ten goals were identified as targets for curriculum development efforts: self-concept, understanding others, basic skills, capacity for continuous learning, responsible member of society, mental and physical health, creativity, informed economic participation, use of accumulated knowledge, and coping with change" (p.39).

The Paideia Proposal


According to Wiles (2005), the Paideia Proposal was "a call for a uniform, required twelve-year curriculum for all schoolchildren. The author, Mortimer Adler, advocates a return to basic schooling with no elective choices expect a second foreign language" (p. 39).

A Nation at Risk


According to Wiles (2005), A Nation at Risk was "a report by the pro-business Commission of Excellence claiming that public schools are causing decline in AMerican. Traditional education and work skills are advocated" (p.39).

personal computers commercially available


Commercial availability of personal computers in the United States

Turning Points


Carnegie Council report on middle school focusing on a decentralized and general curriculum connected to home and family (WIles, 2005, p. 40).

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)


Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); concept of inclusion

Goals 2000


Meeting of the U.S. President and all governors where five goals where outlined:
(1) All children will start school ready to learn
(2) high school graduation will increase to at least 90 percent
(3) students will demonstrate competence over challenging subject matter
(4) every American will be literate
(5) every school will be free of violence and drugs (Wiles, 2005, p. 40)



Recommendations by the U.S. Secretary of Labor that proposed schools prepare workers for the world beyond school and suggested a workplace skills serve as framework (Wiles, 2005, p. 41).

public access to the Internet


Public access to the Internet is established by Congress

School Models

A sampling of the best schools that have contributed to curriculum change

Batavia Plan


According to Wiles (2005) the Batavia Plan contributed "flexible grading and promotion plans that assisted teachers in bringing slower learners up to grade level so that they could be promoted" (p.32).

Dewey School


According to Wiles (2005) the Dewey School at the University of Chicago Laboratory School "focused on training students for cooperative and mutually helpful living as preparation for life in a democracy. Focusing on occupations, the curriculum simulated a community and its interdependencies" (p.32)

Baltimore Plan


According to Wiles (2005) the Baltimore plans influence stemmed from "Featuring a flexible schedule and differentiated grading, this plan for gifted students provided six years of lateral enrichment and then six years of acceleration through subjects" (p.32).

Gary Plan


According to Wiles (2005) the Gary Plan school was "innovative in many ways, this school had four quarters (year round), elementary and secondary school under one roof (educational park), and academic acceleration as early as the fifth grade. The schools were open on Saturdays for community participation" (p.32).

Cambridge Plan


According to Wiles (2005) the Cambridge Plan was "designed to meet the needs of gifted students, featuring two parallel curriculums. The normal track took eight years but gifted students could complete the same materials in six years" (p.32).

Winnetka School


According to Wiles (2005), Winnetka School "featured a two-part curriculum: (1) basic skills and knowledge and (20) activities for self-expression. Students progressed through a fixed curriculum in their own way without attempts to standardize outcomes" (p. 33).

Dalton Plan


According to Wiles (2005) the Dalton Plan influenced education though its "individualized paths through the curriculum provided by jobs. Students would select a job, each divided into twenty units, and "contract" with the teacher. At the end of each month the teacher would check the progress of the students in completing these tasks" (p.32).

Lincoln School


According to Wiles (2005) the Lincoln School "operated as an experimental program at Teachers College that focused on ends such as creativity and insights. Synthesizing the subjects and focus on the utility of knowledge was a goal of this program. Units of work were featured" (p.33).

Summerhill School


Summerhill School, according to Wiles (2005) was "an English school run by A. S. Neil, Summerhill is often used as an example to describe existential or highly flexible school environments" (p.33).

Skyline High School


Skyline High School, according to Wiles (2005) was "a Dallas, Texas, school offering a comprehensive program under one roof. Students in this school could study almost any curriculum and prepare for many occupations based on the nature of the curriculum" (p.33).

John Adams High


John Adams High influenced education according to Wiles (2005) "in the early 1970s this Portland, Oregon, high school gained exposure as a model of 'democratic processes.' Students and faculty used the New England town meeting procedure to solve problems and plan change" (p.33).

Nova High School


According to Wiles (2005) Nova High School "a Fort Lauderdale, Florida, school that featured early technical applications to the instructional process. Funded by a Ford Foundation grant, Nova featured early computer applications as well as advanced video technology" (p. 33).

Parkway Schools


Parkway Schools, according to Wiles (2005) "created in a time of financial crisis, this philadelphia school network demonstrated that schools could be created 'without walls,' using the resources of the city as the learning environment. This program,s still in existence, was widely studied in the 1970s" (p.33)?

Foxfire School


According to Wile (2005) the Foxfire School was "a late 1980s school located in the rural mountains of Georgia, this school was know for its progressive learning procedures and student0oriented culture" (p.32).

Influential educators

Persons who have had major influence on the area of Curriculum and education

Horace Mann

1796 - 1859

Referred to as the Father of American Education. Instrumental in drafting and passing legislation in Massachusetts that established public schooling precedent.

Charles Eliot

1834 - 1926

President of Harvard University for forty years. Called together the Committee of Ten (1892) to establish new college entrance requirements and curricula

Francis Parker

1837 - 1902

Called the Father of Modern Education by Dewey, Parker was an early founder of the Progressive Movement. As superintendent of Quinncy, Massachusetts, schools, Parker is credited with forming up the first "subject" areas.

John Franklin Bobbitt

1876 - 1956

Long-term professor at the University of Chicago. Wrote the first text in the field, The Curriculum (1919).

Harold Rugg

1886 - 1960

Professor at Columbia University form 1920-1951. A leading progressive educator. Best known works: The Child-Centered School (1930) and Foundations of American Education (1947).

Jean Piaget

1896 - 1980

Swiss child development specialist emphasizing cognitive growth. Piaget developed a model of states of cognitive development that was used widely in early childhood programs in the 1960s and 1970s.

Hilda Taba

1902 - 1967

Known as a practical curriculum developer and instructional design specialist. Best known work: Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice.

B.F. Skinner

1904 - 1990

Advocate for operant conditioning in learning and programmed instruction. Best known works: The Technology of Teaching (1968) and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971).

Abraham Maslow

1908 - 1970

Psychologist who developed a widely referenced hierarchy of need satisfaction, Maslow's Hierarchy.

Edward Thorndike- Connectionism, "Law of Exercise" and "Law of effect"


According to Sass, E. (n.d.) "1913 - Edward Lee Thorndike's book, Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning, is published. It describes his theory that human learning involves habit formation, or connections between stimuli (or situations as Thorndike preferred to call them) and responses (Connectionism). He believes that such connections are strengthened by repetition ("Law of Exercise") and achieving satisfying consequences ("Law of Effect"). These ideas, which contradict traditional faculty psychology and mental discipline, come to dominate American educational psychology for much of the Twentieth Century and greatly influence American educational practice."

Sass, E. (n.d.). American History a Hypertext Timeline. Retrieved from: and

Benjamin Bloom

1913 - 1999

Professor at the University of Chicago. Known for the development of taxonomy of cognitive processing, thereby allowing the targeting of curriculum outcomes.

Jerome Bruner


Professor at Harvard University. Headed the Woods Hole conference and advocated "Structures of the Disciplines" organization of subject matter. Best known work: The Process of Education (1960).

John Dewey's influence and the "child-centered" curriculum advanced


According to Wiles (2005) Dewey was "America's best known educator-philosopher. Advocated "connectionism" between subjects and pupils through applied learnings. Directed a laboratory school at the University of Chicago. Best known work: Democracy and Education (1916)."

According to Sass, E. (n.d.) "1916 - John Dewey's Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education is published. Dewey's views help advance the ideas of the "progressive education movement." An outgrowth of the progressive political movement, progressive education seeks to make schools more effective agents of democracy. His daughter, Evelyn Dewey, coauthors Schools of To-morrow with her father, and goes on to write several books on her own."

Sass, E. (n.d.). American History a Hypertext Timeline. Retrieved from:

Louis M. Terman complete American version of the Binet-Simon Scale.


According to Sass, E. (n.d.) "1916 - Louis M. Terman and his team of Stanford University graduate students complete an American version of the Binet-Simon Scale. The Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale becomes a widely-used individual intelligence test, and along with it, the concept of the intelligence quotient (or IQ) is born. The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Scales is among the most popular individual intelligence tests today. For additional information on the history of intelligence testing, see A.C.E. Detailed History of the I.Q. Test."

Sass, E. (n.d.). American History a Hypertext Timeline. Retrieved from:

Alvin Toffler


A futurist whose impact on educational thinking in the second half of the twentieth century has been very strong. Best known work: Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949).


Automobile and Tractor


At the turn of the century 2,300 automobiles where registered in the US (a combination of steam, gas and electric). Benjamin Holt invents the tractor.

Transatlantic telegraphic radio transmission


First electric typewriter sold worldwide


First electric typewriter to be sold worldwide--the Blickensderfer Electric--produced

Haloid photographic paper company founded


The Haloid Company founded to manufacture and sell photographic paper (name changed to Xerox Corporation in 1961)

First totally synthetic plastic patented


Bakelite, the first totally synthetic plastic, patented

First motion picture w/ audio


Thomas Edison demonstrated the first motion picture w/ audio

First North American transcontinental telephone call


First North American transcontinental telephone call between Thomas A. Watson in San Francisco and Alexander Graham Bell in New York City

Calculating machine based on the binary numbers 0 and 1


Calculating machine based on the binary numbers 0 and 1 built by J. Abraham and E. Bloch

First picturephone conversation


First Picturephone conversation held between Herbert Hoover, then American Secretary of Commerce, and Walter Sherman Gifford, president of AT&T