System for Health


Health of Towns Association


The Healthy Cities approach — reflections on a framework for improving global health

The Health of Towns Association was formed in the United Kingdom in 1844 to deliberate on Edwin Chadwick's reports about poor living conditions in towns and cities.

Southwood Smith, member of the British Board of Health, formed The Health of Towns Association. A few years later Smith helps reformers in the US by lending support to the Great American Congresses for Hygiene Reform held in Philadelphia, Baltimore and Boston.

National School Lunch Act


Framingham Heart Study begins


WHO Created


April 7 is also World Health Day

Lalonde report published


The Lalonde report – A new perspective on the health of Canadians in Canada. The report marked the shift from a medical focus to an examination of determinants in four, health “fields:” lifestyle, health care organization, human biology and the environment.

Online report

US Public Law 94-317


Congressman Tim Lee Carter
Senator Edward M. Kennedy
"National Consumer Health Information and Health Promotion
Act of 1976":

Alma Ata Declaration


Health Promotion Further Defined


Health Promotion:
"A combination of health education and related organizational, political and economic programs designed to support changes in behavior and in the environment that will improve health."
(Green, L.W. National policy in the promotion of health. International Journal of Health Education, 22, 161-168.

Healthy People Report (HHS)

July 1979

Promoting Health/Preventing Disease (HHS)

October 1980

Promoting Health/Preventing Disease (HHS)
Objectives for the Nation
Fall 1980

Established "specific and quantifiable objectives necessary for the attainment" of the goals set forth in the 1979 Healthy People report.

China Study begins


Ottowa Charter for Health Promotion


[Charter Homepage](

The fundamental conditions and resources for health are:

  • peace,
  • shelter,
  • education,
  • food,
  • income,
  • a stable eco-system,
  • sustainable resources,
  • social justice, and equity.

Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic prerequisites.

Five Action Areas:
* Building healthy public policy
* Creating supportive environments
* Strengthening community action
* Developing personal skills
* Re-orientating health care services toward prevention of illness and promotion of health

WHO Healthy Cities Initiative


Started at a meeting in Lisbon of 21 European Cities.

WHO defines a Healthy City as "one that is continually developing those public policies and creating those physical and social environments which enable its people to mutually support each other in carrying out all functions of life and achieving their full potential".

Jakarta Declaration


Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century
Charter Homepage

The Jakarta Declaration included the following five "priorities for health promotion in the 21st century":

"Promote social responsibility for health"

"Increase investments for health development"

"Consolidate and expand partnerships for health"

"increase community capacity and empower the individual"

"Secure an infrastructure for health promotion"

The declaration recognizes that:

  • Participation is necessary for change.
  • Health literacy is essential for participation - emphasizes the need for access to education and information and hence, the empowerment of individuals and communities.
  • Combinations of five strategies for health promotion -- "build healthy public policy", "create supportive environments", "strengthen community action", "develop personal skills", and "reorient health services" -- are more effective than "single-track approaches".

Healthy People 2000 Final Report


HHS Healthy People Final Report

Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation created


A food and beverage industry coalition formed to battle obesity is set to launch here this morning. Called the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation, its objective is to reduce obesity, especially in children aged 6 to 11, by 2015.

More than 235 retailers, food and beverage manufacturers, restaurants, sporting goods and insurance companies, trade associations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and professional sports organizations.

Healthy People 2010 Final Report


HHS Healthy People 2010

Healthy People 2020 Begins

December 2010


International Conference on Primary Health Care

9/6/1978 - 9/12/1978

The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC), Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), Kazakhstan (formerly Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic), 6-12 September 1978. It expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all people.

It was the first international declaration underlining the importance of primary health care.

Annual Meeting of the American College Health Association

5/22/1979 - 5/25/1979

Annual Meeting of the American College Health Association
Washington, D.C.

1st WHO International Conference on Health Promotion (Ottowa)

11/21/1986 - 11/22/1986

4th WHO International Conference on Health Promotion

7/21/1997 - 7/25/1997